Vitamin B3 as Niacinamide and B3 as Niacin are both generally considered one of the 8 essential B Complex vitamins that can‘t be made by the body. It is an substantial precursor to the co-factors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Along with their reduced forms NADPH and NADH these enzymes participate in numerous enzymatic reactions and act as antioxidants. Nicotinic acid (niacin) and niacinamide (nicotinamide) are similarly effective as a vitamin because they can be converted into each other within the organism. The blanket term vit B3 is used for both.
Niacinamide is a biologically active form of vitamin B3 found widely in many yeasts and root vegetables. Niacinamide can be made from niacin in the body. Niacin is converted to niacinamide when it is taken in amounts more than what is needed by the body. Niacin, as niacinamide or nicotinic acid , is converted in the body to the active forms, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and a phosphorylated form. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide have similar vitamin effects, however they have very different pharmacological activities. Nicotinamide, via its major metabolite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is involved in a spacious range of biological processes including the production of energy, the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and steroids, signal transduction, and the maintenance of the integrity of the genome.
Nicotinamide has been shown to have antioxidant effect. In vitro, it has been found to inhibit protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. It stops reactive oxidants that induce apoptosis or cell death.
Dietary tryptophan is converted to niacin in the body. Approximately 2/3 of your body’s niacinamide is made from the amino acid, tryptophan. Because dietary tryptophan can be metabolized to niacin, nutritions rich in tryptophan can compensate for inadequate dietary niacin. A double-blind, placebo controlled study that was reported in “Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica” compared 3 different therapy approaches in 25 serious depressed patient aged 18-60. One group was given a combination of tryptophan and nicotinamide, one group was given imipramine and a other group was given a combination of imipramine with the nicotinamide and tryptophan. In the group given the medicine and the supplements, there was a negative correlation between tryptophan levels and response to the treatment suggesting that the tryptophan levels were too high.The data suggest that nicotamide-tryptophan may be as efficient as imipramine in unipolar patients providing the dose is kept within the therapeutic window, and that at low doses it could also potentiate the action of tricyclic antidepressants.
In diabetics, delays the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic cells, avoids cell damage and improves regeneration, reduces levels of glycated haemoglobin and develops parameters of glycaemia. Nicotinamide is being investigated as an substance for the possible delaying or prevention of the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In vitro experiments have showed that nicotinamide can prevent macrophage or interleukin-1beta-induced beta-cell damage. An study in New Zealand using nicotinamide therapy demonstrated a 50 percent decrease in the development of IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) over a 5-year period. In a meta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials, niacinamide promoted wholesome C-peptide levels, insulin metabolism and beta cell function. Nicotinamide has been shown to decrease the production of IL-12 and TNF-alpha in cultures of whole blood from prediabetic and diabetic people and in healthy people.
In the 1950s, doctor W. Kaufman published findings from numerous of case results the useful of niacinamide for arthritis pain in a variety of scientific journals. In a twelve-week randomized double-blind trial involving 72 participant, niacinamide provided statistically significant support for healthy inflammatory response and joint flexibility. Reduces joint inflammation by mediating interleukin I and inhibiting nitricoxide free radicals. The findings of a study reported in the July 1996 edition of Inflammation Research demonstrate that niacinamide develops joint flexibility, reduces inflammation and permits the dose of anti-inflammatory drugs to be reduced in individuals suffering from osteoarthritis.
Niacinamide enhances Sir2p activity by increasing NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). New researches, show that Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) a plays substantial roles in transcriptional regulation, longevity, calorie-restriction-mediated life-span extension and age-associated illness. Study has revealed a longevity gene known as Sir2 that produces the protein Sir2p that has been shown to extend cell life. If Sir2 is removed from the cell’s DNA, lifespan is sharply curtailed. If an extra copy of the gene is inserted into the DNA, lifespan is extended, sometimes by as much as 50 percent.
Side effects associated with high-dose niacinamide include nausea, heartburn, vomiting, dizziness, decrease in insulin sensitivity, liver toxicity, irregular heartbeat, and diarrhea.