Raspberry, (Rubus idaeus) is the fruit of a wide variety of species of the genus Rubus. They may be black, purple, red, or yellow-fruited types. Raspberries have high amounts of phenolic flavonoid phytochemicals such as ellagic acid, anthocyanins, cyanidins, quercetin, gallic acid, pelargonidins, kaempferol and salicylic acid. According to researches, phytonutrients such as ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, cyanidins, gallic acid, salicylic acid and kaempferol provide prevention against inflammation, cancer, and neurological illness. New researches has shown that the ellagic acid in raspberries is highly bio-available.
In lab experiments, ellagic acid seems to decrease the activity of estrogen in promoting growth of breast cancer cells in tissue cultures. A research in cell cultures found that ellagic acid may act against substances that help tumors to form new blood vessels. Ellagic acid causes apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells, induces G1 inhibition of cancer cell division, and avoids destruction of the P53 gene by cancer cells. According to research by Gary Stoner (Ohio State University), ellagic acid stimulates activities of enzymes that detoxify carcinogens.
Apoptosis is defined as “programmed cell death”. Preliminary researches are quite positive with even small concentrations inhibiting growth within 48 hours and causing apoptosis within 72 hours. Dr. Daniel Nixon (Medical University of South Carolina) found that ingesting 40 mg of ellagic acid daily, (which is the amount of ellagic acid contained in 1 cup of red raspberries), can cause cancer cells to undergo apoptosis.
According to some research, ellagic acid reduces the effect of estrogen on cancer cell growth in breast tissue and promotes the breakdown and removal of cancer-causing substances in the blood via the liver. Ellagic acid may slow the growth of breast and cervical cancer, according to “Ohio State University” scientists. A new study in cell cultures found that ellagic acid may act against substances that help tumors to form new blood vessels. Ellagic acid prevents the destruction of P53 gene by cancer cells. Can bind with cancer causing molecules, therefore making them inactive. P53 gene, has the capability to rebuild damaged DNA under normal conditions. However, as part of cancer development it becomes switched off.
The ellagic acid found in raspberries, has been shown to help avoid overactivity of specific pro-inflammatory enzymes as well as their overproduction. “The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” December 2011 has published the anti-inflammatory activities of polyphenolic-enriched raspberry extract in an antigen-induced arthritis in rate model. Anti inflammatory products like aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) resulting in the decrease of pain associated with arthritis, gout and other inflammatory conditions. (The COX inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from raspberries were comparable to those of naproxen and ibuprofen at 10 µM concentrations).
Raspberries, a rich source of anthocyanins and help in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Scientists proved that the antioxidant effect of anthocyanins from raspberries was superior to vitamin E at a test concentration of 125 µg/ml. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of mortality among human. Anthocyanins have demonstrated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and a high intake of anthocyanin have indicated positive effects on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, raspberry is a source of salicylic acid, a compound similar to aspirin. Salicylic acid is found in raspberries and is suggest of having the same preventive activity against cardiovascular disease as aspirin. A 100-g serving of red raspberries includes around 5 mg of salicylic acid.
Raspberries include a especially winning combination of vitamins which act as against age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma and macular degeneration. According to an article published in “Archives of Ophthalmology”, a people who eats at least three servings of fruit per day has a reduce risk of macular degeneration than one who consumes half as much or less. Macular degeneration is an age related health problem which affects vision.