Bromelain Benefits and Dosage

Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapple juice and in the pineapple stem. Bromelain is naturally found in both the juice and stems of the pineapple plant, but the stem contains more bromelain than the pineapple does. The first isolation of bromelain was recorded by the Venezuelan chemist Vicente Marcano in 1891 from the fruit of pineapple. Bromelain is most often used to help digestion and help reduce inflammation.

Bromelain Benefits

Bromelain enzyme is strongly anti-inflammatory substance, it decreases pain and edemas.also reduces the redness, tenderness and swelling as a result of tissue injuries and muscle pains. Bromelain has shown good results in treating inflammation after the surgery and injury. When used in combination with other digestive enzymes, bromelain relieves an upset stomach or heartburn. In Europe, a patented tape has been developed containing bromelain that is used clinically for debriding wound eschar. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory effects is helpful in decreasing pain and burns.


Bromelain is a protein-digesting enzyme that is active at a broad range of pHs, and thus can promote digestion of protein in both the stomach and small intestine. As a proteolytic enzyme it assists the body’s own digestive mechanisms in reducing very large, complex protein molecules into smaller peptide units or individual amino acids. Bromelain can digest proteins and may help relieve stomach upset or heartburn, particularly when used in conjunction with other enzymes such as amylase and lipase. A study in 2008 issue of “Clinical Immunology” found bromelain enzyme decreases inflammation in ulcerative colitis and reduces the secretion of cytokines in IBS.


Bromelain enzyme inhibits formation of prostaglandin E-2, a chemical that causes inflammation, and it also helps to stimulate the production of prostaglandin E-1, an anti-inflammatory chemical. In a clinical study of adults who experienced mild acute knee pain for three months or less, bromelain enzyme  demonstrated anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Administration of bromelain presurgically can reduce the average number of days for complete disappearance of pain and inflammation. A study conducted by an orthopedic surgeon showed that giving bromelain to 59 of his patients resulted in a clear reduction in both swelling and discomfort. A  study published in  2002 issue of Phytomedicine also show that bromelain enzyme reduces knee joint pain in a dose dependent manner. Bromelain enzyme works by blocking selected proinflammatory metabolites that accelerate the inflammatory process. In animal studies, bromelain was the most powerful of nine substances examined, on a par with the drug prednisone.


Some studies suggest that it may help reduce congestion, improve breathing and suppress coughing.  In a double blind study comparing the use of bromelain with placebo, 87 % of those patients who took bromelain reported good to excellent results compared with 68% of the placebo group. A study 2006 issue of Alternative Medicine Review, bromelain enzyme in doses of 500 mg to 1,000 mg per day is effective in sinusitis as an anti-inflammatory and mucolytic. Commission E approved bromelain to treat swelling and inflammation after surgery, particularly sinus surgery.

Immune System

Some scientific evidence from test tubes and animals suggests that bromelain can fight against infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria. A 2005 study done in Germany showed that bromelain activated immune cells that fight infection. Other studies suggest that it may also boost the amount of certain immune system hormones, called cytokines. Bromelain has also been shown to remove T-cell CD44 molecules from lymphocytes and to affect T-cell activation.

Antibiotics and Bromelain

Some studies have shown it to be as effective as antibiotics for treatment of , bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and dental and kidney infection. In a double-blind study, 100 % of people who received bromelain enzyme/trypsin in combination with antibiotics had a resolution of their infection, compared to only 46 % of those who received antibiotics alone. Combined bromelain and antibiotic therapy has been shown to be more effective than antibiotics alone in a variety of conditions including pneumonia, bronchitis, pyelonephritis and sinusitis.


The protease enzyme is beneficial in reducing the clumping of platelets, the formation of plaques in the arteries and the formation of blood clots. Clumping or aggregation may contribute to arterial blockage, heart attack or stroke. Studies have shown that bromelain can also be useful in the reduction of platelet clumping and blood clots in the bloodstream, especially in the arteries. A drastic reduction in the incidence of coronary infarct after administration of potassium and magnesium orotate along with 120-400 mg bromelain enzyme per day has been reported.


When applied to the burned skin it can be rather effective in case of very severe burns. One study using a debridement agent that is derived from bromelain to treat people with second- and third degree burns showed a benefit. When applied to the skin, bromelain removes dead cells in a process known as debridement.

Bromelain Dosage

Bromelain is available in tablets or capsules and as a topical to treat burns. Dosages for bromelain vary, depending on the reason that you’re taking it. The German Commission E recommends 80-320 mg two to three times per day. As  digestive aid, the recommended dosage is generally 500 mg three times per day. Studies on heart patients indicates that increasing the dosage of bromelain to 400 mg  – 1,000 mg per day may reduce the symptoms of angina pectoris. Inflammation; 500-mg to 2,000-mg per day. For best results, the total daily dosage should be divided into 4 doses and taken an hour before or after food. Bromelain has to be enteric-coated so that it will not be used as a digestive enzyme if activated in the stomach. When taken on an empty stomach approximately 40 percent of the bromelain is absorbed into the bloodstream intact.

Bromelain Side Effects

Bromelain is generally safe and free of side effects when taken in moderate amounts. Occasionally individuals may develop an allergic rash from bromelain. If you are allergic to pineapple, do not take bromelain. Bromelain enzyme may increase bleeding risk when taken together with drugs that are known to increase bleeding. You should stop taking bromelain at least 2 weeks before surgery.

Maitake Benefits and Cancer Research

 The scientific name for Maitake is Grifola frondosa. Maitake mushroom is widely regarded in traditional folk medicine as a potent immune food. Maitake polysaccharides contain a unique beta-1,6 1,3 glucan structure. The glucans and polysaccharides in it stimulate the immune system by increasing the activity of the T-helper cells. A polysaccharide is a complex carbohydrate made up of smaller sugar molecules. These sugars stabilize blood pressure, blood sugar, and have an effect on free radicals. The primary polysaccharide, beta-D-glucan, is well absorbed when taken orally and is currently under review for the prevention and treatment of cancer, and as a supportive tool for HIV infection.

Maitake Benefits

The most effective ingredient in the mushroom is its beta-glucan, a polysaccharide compound that boosts the immune system through the activation of macrophage cells, natural killer cells and T-cells. The mushroom’s beta-glucan content works to promote important immune system functions, effectively activating white blood cells that fight off microorganisms that cause disease, including cancer.

Maitake Cancer Research

Specific polysaccharides, known as beta-D-glucans, are also suspected to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer. An extract of these helpful glucans was patented and is known as the maitake D-fraction. Maitake D-fraction, a bioactive extract of maitake mushrooms, has shown anti-tumor activity in tumor-bearing mice, reducing cancer proliferation. The resulting fraction, called D-fraction, is a standardized form of polysaccharide compounds beta-1,6 and beta-1,3 glucane and a protein with a molecular weight close to 1,000,000. In clinical trials Maitake D-fraction has been shown to have an anti-tumour effect on tumour-bearing mice, with enhancing cytotoxic activity of macrophages and elevated production of interleuken-1 leading to the activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Unlike many other mushroom extracts that have to be injected intravenously, Maitake D-fraction has a strong ability to inhibit tumor growth when given orally as well.

In vitro research has shown maitake can induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines  as well as inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells. In a study on the preventive potential of maitake, mice were injected with a carcinogenic substance. 15 days after the injection, 10 mice were fed with 0,2 mg of fraction D of maitake during 15 consecutive days. The control group received a saline solution only. After 30 days, the number of mice with cancer was 30,7% in the group which had received maitake and 93,2% in the control group. In 2009, a phase I/II human trial was conducted by Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and it showed that maitake extract stimulates the immune systems of breast cancer patients. Colon cancer is significantly inhibited by maitake mushroom, according to a Japanese study published in the October 2010 ‘Cancer, Immunology, Immunotherapy‘ journal.

In a clinical study published in 1996 Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, a maitake extract was found to be effective against leukemia and stomach and bone cancers. In China, sixty-three patients with lung, stomach, or liver cancers or leukemia who took four capsules of maitake extract three times daily before meals for one to three months showed an anticancer effect. A recent study at New York Medical College also showed that maitake D-fraction destroyed prostate cancer cells in the test-tube.

MaitakeGold 404® represents the culmination of 18 years of research by Dr. Nanba and contains Dr. Nanba’s patented maitake mushroom extract, the most therapeutically potent and effective maitake extract ever developed by Dr. Nanba for broad spectrum immune stimulation. Additionally, clinical research with maitake often utilizes the mature fruiting body with a small amount of vitamin C. This is added to enhance the effects of maitake, since vitamin C has its own immuno-supporting properties. Combination therapy with maitake and vitamin C improves effectiveness of conventional cancer therapies, according to a study published in the July 2009 issue of the  International Journal of General Medicine.

Maitake Mushroom and HIV

In recent years maitake has gained popularity in the treatment of viral diseases including hepatitis, HIV and Epstein Barr infection. In 1990, the National Cancer Institute in America determined that maitake gave 100% protection to uninfected T cells exposed to the HIV virus in the test tube. Preliminary anti-HIV activity in vitro on Maitake D-fraction has been studied at both the National Institute of health in Japan and National Cancer Institute along with research at independent laboratories and clinical settings. At a conference , 1992, in Fukuoka, Japan, Dr. Hiroaki Nanba announced his findings that a maitake extract was able to prevent HIV destruction of T-helper lymphocytes by as much as 97% in vitro.

Maitake & Liver

Maitake has been shown to promote healthy lipid metabolism in the liver. Animal studies suggest that maitake mushrooms have the ability to alter lipid metabolism by inhibiting both the accumulation of liver lipids and the elevation of serum lipids. Maitake contains properties to protect the liver from damage and may even reverse damage that has already occurred. It also also has been found to help protect the liver from detrimental effects of hepatitis. A concentrated extract of  maitake, was tested on a group of 32 patients with chronic hepatitis B. The maitake group showed a recovery rate of 72% as compared to 57% in the control group.

Maitake Mushroom and Diabetes

People with Type 2 Diabetes have been found to benefit from maitake mushrooms. A specific, high-molecular polysaccharide called the X-fraction appears to be the active compound with anti-diabetic properties. In two reports published in 2002, maitake was found to reduce insulin resistance in rats. A health condition known to raise your risk of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance occurs when the body fails to respond properly to insulin. Additionally, people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus may also benefit from Maitake, according to researchers Hiroaki Nanba and Keiko Kubo, authors of ‘Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products‘.

How to Use Maitake Mushrooms

Maitake D-fraction is available in liquid extract, tablet, and capsule in health food stores, although the amount of beta glucan contained in each form may vary. Maitake, like all of the other medicinal mushrooms, must be prepared as a hot water extract in order to be effective for supporting immune health. Most of the research on maitake D-fraction has been done in Japan using an injectable form of the extract. Maitake Gold 404 dosage: To support people undergoing chemotherapy, the dosage is typically, 0.5mg to 1.0mg for every 1kg  of body weight per day. That translates to a dosage of approximately 35-70mg of the MD-fraction. The daily dosage recommendation for prevention is typically 5 to 15mg of the D- or MD-fraction.

Side Effects

At this time, there are no known adverse reactions when taken in conjunction with medication. If pregnant or lactating, consult your physician before taking this product.

Lycopene Dosage and Side Effects

Lycopene, part of the carotenoid family, is a pigment that helps give red fruits and vegetables their color. Carotenoids are fat soluble and so in the human body are found in fatty tissue and transported by lipoproteins. Food lycopene is found in high amounts in tomato products. Beside tomatoes, other pink- and red-hued fruits contain lycopene.

Lycopene Benefits

Lycopene is a proven antioxidant and neutralizes free radicals which may damage the body’s cells. Laboratory experiments indicate that lycopene is a more effective antioxidant than other carotenoids, including beta-carotene. Antioxidants protect against free radicals, highly reactive atoms and molecules that can damage DNA and other important molecules in the cell.


Lycopene research suggests that it may reduce the chance of serum lipid oxidisation, macular degenerative disease and lung, cervix, prostate, bladder and skin cancer. Over the long term, carotenoid-deficient diets may increase tissue damage from free radical activity, and increase risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and cancers. Lycopene also shows anti-mutagenic action against chemically induced DNA damage. An Italian study showed that people who ate at least one tomato-based product per day had a 50 percent lower chance of contracting digestive tract cancer than those who did not eat tomatoes. In a 1995 Harvard University study conducted with 47,894 men, researchers found that eating 10 or more servings a week of tomato products was linked with a reduced risk of prostate cancer by as much a 34 percent. A study published in Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention in 2001 noted that increased blood levels of carotenoids like lycopene reduced the risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene has also been demonstrated to have other possible anti cancer activities particularly relating to modulation of intercellular communication and alterations in intracellular signalling pathways.

Macular Degeneration

Free-radical damage can become apparent in the eyes through the development of cataracts or macular degeneration. Studies provide evidence that nutritional antioxidants slow down the progression of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Tomatoes may protect the eyes by deterring macular degeneration, a cause of vision loss in older people, suggests new University of Maryland research that found high levels of lycopene in eye tissue.


There is some evidence that lycopene, administered systemically, may be an effective treatment for gingivitis. A study done at the Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences in Bangalore, India has demonstrated that lycopene may also be effective in treating and preventing gingivitis. The study authors concluded that lycopene shows great promise as a treatment modality in gingivitis.


Asthma is a chronic disease that involves inflammation of the lungs.New research recently published in The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry has found that lycopene may protect against inflammation in the lungs and reduce the risk of developing asthma. Researchers concluded supplementation with lycopene reduces allergic inflammation both in the lungs and systemically, by decreasing Th2 cytokine responses.

Lycopene Food Sources

Fruits and vegetables that are high in lycopene include not only tomatoes, but watermelon, pink grapefruit, rosehip and papaya. Research shows that lycopene can be absorbed more efficiently by the body after it has been processed into juice, sauce, paste, or ketchup. Eating lycopene-rich vegetables and fruits together with a small amount of oil or fat  increases the amount of lycopene absorbed by the intestines.

Lycopene Dosage

The optimal dose of lycopene is not known. The recommended daily intake of lycopene is 6 to 30 milligrams. The man in the Harvard study with the greatest protection against cancer consumed at least 6.5 mg per day. Supplementing with lycopene in doses up to 75 mg daily for the long term does not seem to pose any health risks. The serum concentration after a single dose peaks at 24 to 48 hours post dose.

Lycopene Side Effects

People who are allergic to tomatoes or lycopene should not take lycopene supplements. High intakes of lycopene-rich foods or supplements may result in a deep orange discoloration of the skin. Also, if you are taking any prescription drugs you should talk to your health care provider.

Yerba Mate Side Effects and Benefits

Yerba mate ((Ilex paraguariensis) tea is a traditional drink in South America made from the leaves of the South American rainforest holly tree. Yerba mate contains caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, well known stimulants also found in tea, chocolate and coffee. This stimulating herbal beverage has the unique ability to wake up the mind without the nervousness and jitters associated with coffee. Of the 196 volatile chemical compounds found in Yerba Mate, 144 are also found in green tea. Yerba Mate tea is steeped in hot water instead of boiling water, like other teas. This prevents the tea from becoming bitter.

Yerba Mate Benefits

Mate boosts energy, fights fatigue, is rich in antioxidants and minerals, reduces appetite, balances the body in all its functions and contains less caffeine than coffee or even green tea. (Among the polyphenols in Yerba Mate are caffeine, caffeic acid, quercetin, catechin, epicatechin gallate). Mate is known to contain saponins which have been shown to stimulate the immune system. The immune system, a critical collection of biological structures and processes, is important to keep as strong as possible.

Yerba MateSupportive evidence provided recently by scientists proves that mate tea has a positive effect on controlling weight and boosting weight loss. In Germany, it is a popular weight-loss aid and in France Yerba Mate is approved for the treatment of fatigue and as an aid in weight loss programs. A study done at The University of Lausanne  found that people who use yerba mate actually burn more body fat as energy, therefore, significantly reducing their total weight. A study done in 1999 in Switzerland, found that yerba mate had a thermogenic effect, meaning that it seemed to increase the amount of body fat burned as energy.

Yerba mate is full of antioxidants, including vitamin C and various flavinoids. Studies found that yerba mate contain 196 active constituents which are more than the compounds in green tea. A study published in 2008 found that yerba mate helped neutralize free radicals and protect mice from DNA damage, a hallmark of cancer and other diseases.

Yerba mate contains caffeine and stimulates the central nervous system. It is considered a stimulant, but unlike caffeine it affects the central nervous system without the addictive or nervousness caffeine can often cause. Another one of yerba mate benefits is its ability to reduce fatigue and increase mental and physical fatigue. Yerba mate is the subject of a German monograph which lists its approved uses for mental and physical fatigue.

Mate has been shown to improve digestion and repair damaged gastrointestinal tissues. Yerba mate also acts on the digestive tube by activating peristaltic movements, it facilitates digestion. Yerba mate is a traditional treatment for gastrointestinal disorders in South America.

Yerba mate also helps prevent arteriosclerosis and prevents blood clots that may cause heart attack or stroke. A study by the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil found that mate could reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Research from the Paris Instituteindicates LDL oxidation is inhibited by extracts of Yerba Mate and incidence of arteriosclerosis is low in countries where Yerba Mate is consumed.

Yerba Mate Side Effects

A large consumption of yerba mate tea could lead to insomnia, especially if it is consumed regularly on a daily basis. When yerba mate is consumed in large doses, it has been found to have adverse affects on the liver. Show alternative translations. Caffeine can contribute to muscle tension when consumed in excess, especially for those who are prone to it. Some studies suggest that it is the very hot temperature at which yerba mate is typically consumed that increases esophageal cancer risk, rather than yerba mate itself.

Maca Dosage and Benefits

Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a root that grows in the high mountains of Peru. The plant grows between 13,000 and 14,500 feet above the sea level on the high Andean plateaus of Peru. The Peruvians have used it as a food for centuries, both for its nutritional value and its medicinal properties. The dried roots can be stored for up to seven years.

Maca Benefits

The maca root is known for its adaptogenic properties. Studies have shown that one of the  Maca benefits is that the plant can work to balance hormones by directly working with the body’s endocrine system. Maca contains four types of alkaloids, which are indirectly through hormone system responsible for the proper utilization of phosphorus and calcium in the blood. Also maca root is used as a tonic to enhance strength and endurance and as an aphrodisiac to increase male potency and to improve hormonal functions.


Maca root is known as an adaptogen due to its ability to resist environmental stressors and strengthens the pituitary and adrenal systems. Adaptogens are substances that raise the physical body’s state of resistance to diseases through physiological health and emotional health improvements. Maca also helps the body to produce serotonin, a substance which induces good mood and digestion. People who have taken Maca for a long time have attested to the fact that they have experienced a dramatic decrease in the effects of stress in their body.

Libido Enhancement

Maca root has been shown to increase male libido and sperm production in studies. Study data showed that maca increased sexual desire by 180 % and increased sperm count by 200%.  Research has proven that it acts on certain areas of the body that produce hormones and energizing substances, which enhance libido and increase virility. The clinical study carried out by Gonzales from Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia demonstrates an 85% increase in the men’s total sperm count, as well as an increase in sperm motility and motile sperms quantity  in men treated with maca. Research has demonstrated that maca root contains a chemical called p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which has reputed aphrodisiac properties. The hexanic extract of maca appears to be more effective at improving sexual performance in rats than methanolic and chloroformic extracts.

Hormone Regulator

By regulating the endocrine system, maca promotes overall health. The endocrine system consists of glands that produce hormones necessary for essential body functions. Always our body’s reaction and response is based on hormones and depends on hormonal imbalances. This system affects sexuality, growth, strength and energy. Maca stimulates the pituitary gland, acting as a kind of tonic for the hormone system.

Maca Dosage

The recommended dosage is 1500 to 3000 mg/day. maca  root  in capsules has been tested in doses of 500 to 1,000 mg taken three times for male infertility. Choose gelatinized maca for greater potency and optimal absorption. Buy maca from reliable manufacturers only and beware of fake products.

Maca Side Effects

Maca is a food, not a drug and is generally considered to be safe for everyone.In toxicity studies conducted by many laboratories, Maca root showed absolutely no toxicity and no adverse pharmacological effects.One of the side effects of maca can be nausea and stomach upset.The stimulant properties may make it difficult to sleep.If you have a disorder in which your thyroid gland produces too much or too little thyroid hormone, don’t take Maca root extract without first talking with your physician. When you are using it medicinally, avoid taking maca continuously for more than three months.