Niacinamide Dosage and Effects

Niacinamide is a form of niacin, also known as vitamin B3. When vitamin B3, combines with amino acids of another molecule, the chemical reaction produces niacinamide, also called as nicotinamide. Whole B vitamins help the body to convert food into fuel, which is used to produce energy. Also, B vitamins are needed for healthy hair, skin, liver and eyes. Because niacin is very important for cellular processes throughout body, insufficiency leads to widespread symptoms involving skin, mucous membranes, nervous system and gastrointestinal system. B complex vitamins are water-soluble, and excess vitamins are excreted in the urine.


Niacinamide is necessary for hundreds of enzymatic reactions. Your body needs niacinamide to form healthy cells and assist in metabolizing protein and fats. Niacinamide is considered to have positive effects on a large array of other medical problems, including the cataracts, heart disease, second heart attack, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis.

Niacinamide Dosage

The USDA recommended daily allowance of niacinamide or niacin is 13-18 mg/day for a normal, healthy adult. Men 19 years and older; 16 mg (RDA), Women 19 years and older; 14 mg (RDA), Pregnant women; 18 mg (RDA), Breastfeeding women; 17 mg (RDA). For vitamin B3 deficiency, niacinamide or niacin 50-100 mg per day is used. For pellagra in children, niacinamide or niacin 100-300 mg daily is given in divided doses. For pellagra in adults, niacinamide or niacin 300-500 mg daily is given in divided doses.

Niacinamide Food Sources

Food sources of niacin include animal proteins, beef liver, green vegetables, brewer’s yeast, mushrooms, roasted peanuts, tuna, haddock, swordfish, salmon, whole wheat and enriched flours.

Side Effects

Some serious side effects of Niacinamide are stomach upset, nausea, dizziness,, muscle weakness, vision changes, darker-colored urine, bloody or black stools, tingling or numbness of the skin, appetite loss, a decrease in insulin sensitivity, irregular heartbeat, yellowing of the eyes or of the skin, and liver toxicity. When taken with blood pressure drugs, niacinamide can cause risky low blood pressure. Checking with your physician before using niacinamide if you suffer from liver problem, diabetes, ulcers, gout, glaucoma or low blood pressure or are taking statins or fibrates.

Taurine Benefits and Effects

Taurine (chemical formula 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulphur-containing amino acid which the body can produce from the amino acids cysteine and methionine . Generally a person’s body produces all the taurine it needs, and therefore this substance is classified as a non-essential amino acid. Taurine is named after the Latin ”Taurus” which means bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Leopold Gmelin and Friedrich Tiedemann. This amino acid is found in high amounts in the human brain, retina, central nervous system, skeletal muscles, heart and platelets. Deficiencies in vitamin A, vitamin B6, zinc, and the amino acids cysteine and methionine can cause your body to not be able to make enough taurine.

Taurine Benefits

Taurine is necessary for the healthy physiological functions of the heart, brain and the retina in the eye. Has been used clinically in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, cystic fibrosis, seizure disorders, ocular disorders, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and alcoholism.

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Taurine comprises over 50 % of the total free amino acid pool of the heart. It has a positive inotropic action on cardiac tissue, and has been proved in some trials to lower blood pressure. Congestive heart failure, a condition in which the heart has trouble pumping blood, which leads to fluid accumulating in the legs and lungs. Taking taurine seems to improve heart function and symptoms in people with moderate heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class II) to severe heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class IV).Some patients with serious heart failure rapidly improve from New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV to II after 4 to 8 weeks of therapy. In a 1984 animal-based study, taurine protected against heart failure, reducing mortality by 80 % in the taurine-treated group with no diminishment of cardiac function. In one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial , 58 patient with congestive heart failure took either placebo or 2 g of taurine 3 times daily for four weeks. During taurine therapy, the study participants showed important improvement in breathlessness, heart palpitations, fluid buildup, and heart x-ray, as well as standard scales of heart failure severity. Taurine  in preventing  arrhythmia is well documented  and it is thought it may act by modulating potassium flux in and out of cardiac muscle cells. In Japan, this amino acid is used to treat ischemic heart disease, which can lead to strokes, and heart arrhythmia in patients with congestive heart failure.

Retinal Degeneration

High concentrations of taurine are found in the eyes and in especially, the retina. Deficiencies of amino acid taurine are known to cause retinal lesions and visual deterioration, which can be reversed with dietary taurine. According to taurine in Health and Disease, taurine has antioxidant effects in preventing macular degeneration and other eye illness.


Hepatitis is one of the most common liver diseases which causes degenerative effects on the liver. Taurine might help treat acute viral hepatitis, according to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. In double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 63 people with hepatitis were given either 12 g of taurine daily or placebo. According to blood tests, the taurine group experienced important improvements in liver function as compared to the placebo group.


Diabetes is a common metabolic disease that, is usually associated with heart, kidney, eye and nerve complications. Human and animal-based studies indicate that taurine supplementation is helpful in reduce some of the complications of insulin-dependant diabetes. Plasma and platelet taurine levels have been found to be depressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, but, these levels were raised to normal with oral taurine.

Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, then acts on muscles and the liver to clear glucose from the blood. In the diabetic, there may be or an insufficient production of insulin, the production of an incomplete hormone, or a decrease in the number and affinity of insulin receptors. This amino acid improves insulin sensitivity due to its lipid lowering effect. Taurine helps manage blood sugar and insulin levels and may improve the function of beta cells, the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Taurine was shown to be beneficial in preserving stem cells that lead to promotion of pancreatic hormone production in a cold-storage method referred to as “cryopreservation”. Researchersin Pune, India, at the Stem Cells and Diabetes Section used taurine as part of the preservation of mononuclear cells that activate the genes that code for the pancreatic function.


Both taurine and  a synthetic taurine analog (acamprosate) have been shown to be clinically beneficial in treating  people with alcohol dependence. Twenty-two people undergoing treatment for alcohol withdrawal were given 1 gram of taurine three times per day orally for 7days. When compared to retrospective controls, important fewer of the taurine-treated patients had psychotic episodes.

Cystic Fibrosis

Clinical trials using 30 mg/kg taurine daily for 4 months resulted in a significant decrease in fecal fatty acids. Cystic fibrosis is generally characterized by nutrient malabsorption in the ileum, impaired bile acid conjugation, and steatorrhea. Patients with cystic fibrosis are less able to absorb fat due to their pancreas issues, and this results in a fatty diarrhea called  steatorrhea. During  study reported in the June 1985 edition of Pediatric Research, 22 children with cystic fibrosis taking 30 mg of taurine per kg of body weight per day were able to decrease their steatorrhea by an average of 17.6%.

Epileptic Seizures

A seizure is characterized by anomalous uncontrolled electrical signals sent by nerve cells in the brain. Taurine acts like the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which reduces activity in the brain. In a 2008 study reported in the “Journal of Neuroscience,” found that taurine is  a powerful activator of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in the thalamus, which are the areas that the neurotransmitter binds to. Taurine has been administered intravenously or orally at a wide range of doses  for varying periods of time to patients with severe, intractable epilepsy. In some studies, a significant reduction in seizure frequency was observed, whereas no  positive effect was seen in others. In one study a daily oral dose of 0.05-0.3 g/kg and 750 mg in other study both demonstrated remarkable efficacy in cases of intractable epilepsy, decreasing seizures by more than 30% in 11 of 34 patients. According to report, taurine was effective against partial epilepsy but had small effect on generalized epilepsy.

Natural Taurine Sources

Food sources of taurine include, shellfish, fish, meat, dairy products, poultry and eggs; as well as dietary supplement form.

Taurine Dosage

Taurine is generally administered orally, with the adult dosage being 500 mg to 3g daily in divided doses. In studies of taurine for treating congestive heart failure, doses of 2 g to 6 g daily were used. These doses were split up into 2 or 3 smaller doses per day. For treating hepatitis, a dosage of 4 g three times daily for 6 weeks has been used in a clinical study.

L-Cysteine In Food

Cysteine (chemical formula C3H7NO2S), an amino acid that can be synthesized by the body or consumed in some nutrients is one. This amino acid plays an important role in maintaining protein structure. Cysteine is a sulfur amino acid and contains a sulfhydryl group. In the body, cysteine is synthesized from the aminoacid methionine. Cysteine is found in proteins along your body and plays a role in stabilizing proteins. Serves as a precursor for synthesis of proteins, taurine, glutathione, coenzyme A and inorganic sulfate.


High molybdenum and cobalt levels have been shown to alleviate the symptoms of excessive levels of these metals and may  be beneficial in other cases of heavy metal toxicity. According to research reported in the Journal of Nutrition in June 1987, sulfur-containing cysteine plays an significant role in neutralizing toxic trace minerals that are ingested.

The body uses cysteine to produce the antioxidant glutathione, as well as the aminoacid taurine. Cysteine along with 2 another amino acids form the antioxidant tripeptide glutathione. Glutathione is a molecule your body produces naturally by combining the 3 aminoacids cysteine, glycine and glutamine. Glutathione is a molecule that helps remove free radicals from your body. Is a important factor in detoxification and antioxidant mechanisms of your body. Many diseases are related to the deficiency of glutathione. Cancer, inflammation, AIDS, sickle cell anemia, heart attack, stroke,liver disease, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease correlate to glutathione deficiency.

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a derivative of cysteine that can be taken in supplement form. NAC is then converted by the body into cysteine, which can then be transformed into another molecule, named glutathione. N-Acetylcysteine has been used successfully to treat glutathione deficiency in a wide range of infections, genetic defects and metabolic disorders, including HIV infection and COPD. According to a study reported in the June 2006 edition of the International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, a 600 mg daily dose of NAC can be effective in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cysteine supports liver health and it helps to detoxify your body by binding to and eliminating harmful substances suchlike as those found in alcohol, drugs and other toxic compounds. Intravenous cysteine, (in the form of N-Acetylcysteine), decreases liver damage due to acetaminophen overdose in more than 99 percent of patients when administered in the first 12 hours, in a study reported in Hepatology, in April 2002.

Cysteine is a natural precursor to taurine, which is significant to build lean muscle mass. Therefore body builders often supplement cysteine to increase muscle growth and size. Cysteine, may be given intravenously to promote the production of proteins. This operation may help reduce the rate of protein breakdown and promote wound healing.

L-Cysteine In Food

Food sources include ricotta and cottage cheese, egg yolks, yogurt, meats including pork, poultry,  wheat germ, granola, oats, garlic and onions. The daily diet contributes approximately 1 gram of cysteine. Dietary deficiencies of other nutrients, such as methionine, vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), vitamin B12, S-adenosyl-L-methioninee (SAMe), and folic acid may decrease body’s production of cysteine.


The common dose of L-cysteine supplements is between 250 and 1,500 mg daily. L-cysteine supplementation may be most useful when used in conjunction with vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E and  and selenium. Avoid some forms of cysteine, as they are toxic; D-cystine, D-cysteine, and 5-methyl cysteine.

Side Effects

Some of the possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and other gastrointestinal problems. High doses of cysteine may be toxic to human cells and may furthermore lead to death. Individuals with kidney stones particularly cystine stones, should avoid l-cysteine supplements. L-cysteine, could produce a false-positive result in the nitroprusside test for ketone bodies used in diabetes. Due to lack of long-term safety studies, supplementation should be avoided in nursing or pregnant women. Do not take l-cysteine supplements without consulting your doctor.

Glycine Benefits and Dosage

Glycine is a nonessential amino acid used by the body to build proteins. Was first discovered in 1820.  Body is able to make glycine using another amino acid, serine. It is required for the construction of  healthy RNA and DNA  strands, which are the genetic building blocks that are important for the proper function of your body’s cells. The glycine is used by the nervous system and its function as an inhibitory neurotransmitter makes it significant to help prevent epileptic seizures and it is also used in the therapy of hyperactivity and manic depression.

Glycine Benefits

Glycine it has many important effects on your body and is involved in a variety of biochemical reactions. Also functions as a neurotransmitter and as a precursor to metabolic intermediates as purines, which are ingredients of DNA. Glycine a acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to the brain, which results in a feeling of calmness. In addition stimulates the production of glucagon, which causes the body to produce and release glucose into the blood stream.

Glycine functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter and therefore works positive in treating problems such as bipolar depression, epilepsy and hyperactivity. In a study injections containing glycine were administered to the gray matter of the brain in animal subjects. The findings showed reduced anxiety levels.

Experiment reported in 1996 in the British Journal of Psychiatry found that glycine helped to achieve a meaningful reduction in unfavorable, depressive and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Glycine might enhance the effect of drugs used for schizophrenia, particularly those in the “phenothiazine” category. But, it may not be effect for people using “clozapine“.

Animal-based studies suggest that dietary glycine may protect against chemically induced damage to the kidneys or liver. A rodent study published in the January 2004 edition of Die Pharmazie examined the effects of glycine to alcohol fed rats. The researchers concluded that glycine has a possible in liver and brain protection against alcohol-induced damage.

Digestive system relies on glycine in order to function healthy. Glycine is a common factor in antacids because of its capability to balance the acid-base ratio in your digestive tract, according to a 2006 study reported in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Glycine also may play a role in maintaining the health of the prostate. Experiments on glycine for prostatitis have shown that when taken in combination with glutamic acid and alanine, glycine helps in treating swollen prostate tissue.

Glycine Best Source

High-protein foods, such as meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese and beans are the best dietary sources of glycine. Also be ingested as a nutritional supplement.

Glycine Dosage

Dosages of oral glycine used in clinical studies for therapeutic purposes range from 2 g to 60 g daily. Taking glycine along with clozapine might reduce the effectiveness of clozapine. Dosages for this condition are very large 30 to 90 g daily. Remember to talk with your doctor before starting a new supplement.

Side Effects

The side effects which are  reported after intake of glycine supplements include nausea, vomiting and mild digestive problems.

Glutathione Foods and Benefits

Glutathione is a natural protein within the body made of three distinct amino acids, known as cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Body synthesizes glutathione to help defend it against free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause cell damage. Although all cells in the human body can synthesize glutathione, the liver is the primary organ that maintains circulating levels of glutathione. Research shows that glutathione levels, steadily decline by 8% to 12% per decade, beginning at the age of 20.

Glutathione exists in the body in two different forms. One is the reduced form, or GSH, and the other is the oxidized form, GSSG. GSH is the form that combats free radicals in the body. The majority of this substance found in the cells and tissue of the body is in the GHS state. Of total glutathione concentration in the body, only 10% resides as GSSG.

Glutathione and Diseases

Many diseases are related to the deficiency of glutathione. Inflammation, cancer, AIDS, sickle cell anemia, heart attack, stroke, liver disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease  correlate to glutathione deficiency. Scientific researchs has shown that people who have low levels of glutathione are susceptible to chronic disease. Low levels of glutathione limit the optimum functioning of T cells. Cytotoxic T cell responses and interleukin-II-dependent functions are inhibited even by a partial depletion of the intracellular glutathione pool. Many neurological and psychiatric disease processes are characterized by high levels of oxidative stress and free radical formation, as well as abnormalities in glutathione metabolism and antioxidant defenses. Two examples of immune system disorders that seem to have a correlation with low glutathione levels are rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Atherosclerosis seems to be linked to oxidative damage to the endothelial cells especially when glutathione levels are low. Chronically low glutathione levels are seen in premature infants, alcoholic cirrhosis and individuals with HIV. A 27 percent reduction in glutathione has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients.

Glutathione Benefits

It is a strong antioxidant and thus neutralizes free radicals and prevents their formation. It is an antioxidant requisite for the protection of proteins; is involved in nucleic acid synthesis and plays a role in DNA repair. Plays a significant role in red and white blood cell formation. Builds as a cofactor the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Important role in immune function via white blood cell production and is one of the most powerful antiviral agents known.


GlutathioneGlutathione is a molecule that helps remove free radicals from your body. Is a important factor in detoxification and antioxidant mechanisms of your body. It directly quenches reactive hydroxyl free radicals, other oxygen-centered free radicals, and radical centers on DNA and other biomolecules. Glutathione works with two enzymes to perform its functions; glutathione peroxidase converts ROS into water molecules, and glutathione-S-transferase binds glutathione to toxic substances so the latter can be excreted from your body.

Immune System

Glutathione is an integral part of maintaining a strong immune system. It is responsible for transporting nutrients to lymphocytes and phagocytes, two cells that are important to immune function. The immune system works best if the lymphoid cells have a delicately balanced intermediate level of glutathione. In individuals with immune deficiency, glutathione levels fall well below the normal levels in blood and immune cells. Glutathione is responsible for an array of critical cellular processes including gene expression, cell signaling and DNA and protein synthesis. A article reported in the “Annals of Pharmacology” stated that glutathione is significant in DNA synthesis and repair, protein and prostaglandin synthesis, amino acid transport, detoxification of toxins and carcinogens, enhancement of the immune system, and protection from oxidation and enzyme activations.

Glutathione Foods

Glutathione occurs naturally in many foods, and people who eat well probably have enough in their diets. Those with diets high in fresh fruits and vegetables and freshly prepared meats are most likely just fine.


Some fruits are high in glutathione. Avocados, oranges,grapefruit,  strawberries, watermelon, peaches, blueberries have the highest contents.


Most sources of protein can increase your glutathione levels. Cysteine is found in high protein foods, especially ricotta and cottage cheese, pork, beef, chicken, turkey, duck and other poultry. Raw eggs and raw, unpasteurized milk are rich in glutathione.

•Sulfur Rich Nutrients

Eating sulfur-rich nutrients may enhance glutathione production in your body. The amino acids cysteine, glycine and glutamate are precursors to Glutathione (GSH) in the body’s cells. Consuming foods rich in these sulfur-containing amino acids can help boost glutathione levels including, garlic, onions, broccoli, asparagus, collards, cauliflower, kale and cabbage. Cooking vegetables reduces their glutathione levels. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is related to glutathione (GSH), and comes from raw foods and stimulates the production within the body of the master antioxidant glutathione (GSH).


Selenium is necessary for formation of glutathione containing enzymes. Selenium-rich oats, cereals, beef, poultry, Brazil nuts, walnuts, legumes, tuna, cheese, eggs.

•Unadulterated Whey Protein

Whey protein is an important food for increasing your glutathione levels. The combination of added whey protein with vitamin B2 (riboflavin) provides the contribution for boosting glutathione levels.

•Milk Thistle

Milk thistle (silymarin), helps to prevent the depletion of glutathione in the liver. Milk thistle  can help your liver regenerate cells and heal itself. The liver has the maximum concentration of glutathione because it’s the main organ of detoxification. It also stimulates the glutathione S-transferase pathway and increases the level of glutathione in cells. A 2010 study reported in the journal “Food and Chemical Toxicology” found that milk thistleincreased the body’s level of glutathione, providing a possible means of preventing liver damage. Average dosage for people with impaired liver disease is between 420 and 600 milligrams of silymarin daily.


Curcumin is an extract from the Indian spice turmeric. The two words are sometimes used interchangeably. Curcumin is able to stabilize the amounts of glutathione in the body. Curcumin has been found to increase expression of the glutathione S-transferase and protect neurons exposed to oxidant stress. Typical dosage consists of 400 to 600 mg of curcumin three times a day.

•Alpha Lipoic Acid

Supplements of alpha lipoic acid help improve intracellular levels of glutathione. Alpha-lipoic acid is a naturally occurring compound that is synthesized in small amounts by humans. Is present in every cell, where it assists in energy production. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has many functions, but it’s one of the most effective free radical scavengers. It also has the ability  to regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamins C, E, and glutathione. Around 30 to 40% of oral doses of ALA are absorbed. As a general antioxidant, a dosage of 20 to 50 mg daily is commonly recommended. Most studies have used doses of 300 to 600 milligrams daily.


N-Acetylcysteine is a metabolite of the sulfur-containing amino acid, cysteine. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is rapidly metabolized to intracellular glutathione. Clinical studies have shown that pretreatment with N-Acetylcysteine for paracetamol overdose protects liver cells and maintains glutathione levels. N-Acetylcysteine is a precursor to glutathione and used as both an antidote for acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and as a mucolytic agent for respiratory diseases. Typical dosages range of 250-1500 mg a day.

•SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine)

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine is a naturally occurring molecule distributed to virtually all body tissues and fluids. SAMe (S-Adenosylmethionine) is an important energy source  and intrinsically related to the synthesis of glutathione. Folic acid, vitamin B6, and B12, are required for proper formation and metabolism of S-Adenosylmethionine. In transsulfuration reactions, S-adenosyl-L-methionine is converted to cysteine in a series of enzymatic steps. Cysteine is a precursor of glutathione, a important cellular antioxidant. SAMe must be taken on an empty stomach for absorption purposes. ( SAM-e Dosage for Depression )