D-Mannose Side Effects and Benefits

Mannose is a pure, natural stereo isomer of glucose. Is found naturally in fruits such as apples, peaches, oranges, cranberries, blueberries and some plants, mannose develops naturally in the body. Also, mannose is available as a nutritional supplement, called D-mannose. The D-mannose sold in as a dietary supplement is extracted from the birch or beech trees. D-mannose is processed and eliminated by our bodies very quickly.

What Is a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)?

Most urinary tract infections are bladder infections. Infection of the bladder is usually caused by Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. If you do not take care of a bladder infection, it can spread to kidneys. Bacteria may travel up the ureters to multiply and infect the kidneys. A kidney infection is called pyelonephritis. Kidney infection can cause permanent damage.  Infection of the urethra can occur when gastrointestinal bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. Escherichia coli is the bacterium found in some 85-90 percent of bladder infections. 10 % are caused by the  Procteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter; and less than 5 % are caused by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, chlamydia or enterococcus. Women tend to get more bladder infections than men. Women have a shorter urethra, which cuts down on the distance bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.

Medical Treatment

Medical treatment of UTIs involves the use of antibiotics. While these drugs are usually effective, curing most infections, have some serious negative effects. These drugs kill off friendly  bacteria living in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, antibiotics can cause side effects, such as constipation, diarrhoea, and nausea. Also, the use of antibiotics promotes the development of bacterial species that are able to resist these drugs. Bacteria are very clever in their ability to mutate genes, making themselves immune to the effects of antibiotics. Bacteria that have become immune then pass this ability on to their offspring or other bacteria. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multidrug resistant or, informally, a superbug.

D-Mannose and Urinary Tract Infection

D-Mannose does not kill bacteria. In contrast allows the bad bacteria to be easily flushed out of the body with the urine. A little amounts of D-Mannose are metabolized by our bodies; more than small amounts are excreted promptly into the urine. Various researchs has shown that 90% of D-mannose taken orally is excreted in the urine unchanged within 30-60 minutes. D-mannose is absorbed within the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract. So it never gets anywhere near the intestines. In this way,  it does not disturb the normal, healthy growth of bacteria in that area.

D-mannose prevents adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to tissues of the urinary tract and bladder. Is found in the interaction between D-mannose and the bacterium found in over 90% of all bladder infections, Escherichia coli. The reason that the escherichia coli are able to attach so strongly to the bladder wall is because our body also produces small amounts of mannose. There is an undisputed attraction between the sticky mannose receptors and the escherichia coli fimbria, and it is that same attraction that becomes essential in their removal. Once the Escherichia coli are weighed down in mannose rich urine they are quickly and simply expelled from the body during the next voiding leaving your bladder clear from infection. When taken by mouth relatively large quantities of D-mannose can cure more than 90% of all UTIs within 1 to 2 days. The molecular mechanism of the action of D-mannose on Escherichia coli  is scientifically proven. In addition, literally tens of thousands of women working with natural medicine doctors have successfully applied this treatment to their won UTIs. In the USA, one doctor who has been using D-mannose in the treatment of cystitis is Dr. Michael Blue (Urologist). In a clinical trial he conducted with his patients, he found that 71% reported either symptoms improvement or to be completely free of their cystitis symptoms.

D-Mannose for UTI Dosage

D-mannose comes in a powder form to be stirred into liquid, or in a tablet form. Daily dose, start at 2.5ml to 5ml  of the powder form in water every two to three hours.  Or take two capsules of D mannose per day. Also, be sure to drink plenty of water to encourage the removal of harmful waste products. (Symptoms will clear up within a few days having taking D-mannose continuously but it is advisable to take for a little longer to make sure). Over 90 percent of all bladder and kidney infections are caused by Escherichia coli but a little rate of urinary tract infections result from other microorganisms and may require antibiotics.

D-Mannose Side Effects

In some cases, bloating and nausea can occur. There are anecdotal reports that some people with diabetes experience a transient increase in blood sugar rates. however the effect is not serious and never permanent, lasting only for the length of time mannose is used. In a similar way that D-mannose binds to bacteria it is also considered that D-Mannose may bind to sperm and prevent fertilization. The contraceptive effect  appears to be short lived however. Further research is underway with a view to creating a D-mannose contraceptive. (what is a contraceptive? Is an umbrella term for several techniques and methods used to prevent fertilization or to interrupt pregnancy at various stages)

Bromelain Benefits and Dosage

Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapple juice and in the pineapple stem. Bromelain is naturally found in both the juice and stems of the pineapple plant, but the stem contains more bromelain than the pineapple does. The first isolation of bromelain was recorded by the Venezuelan chemist Vicente Marcano in 1891 from the fruit of pineapple. Bromelain is most often used to help digestion and help reduce inflammation.

Bromelain Benefits

Bromelain enzyme is strongly anti-inflammatory substance, it decreases pain and edemas.also reduces the redness, tenderness and swelling as a result of tissue injuries and muscle pains. Bromelain has shown good results in treating inflammation after the surgery and injury. When used in combination with other digestive enzymes, bromelain relieves an upset stomach or heartburn. In Europe, a patented tape has been developed containing bromelain that is used clinically for debriding wound eschar. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory effects is helpful in decreasing pain and burns.


Bromelain is a protein-digesting enzyme that is active at a broad range of pHs, and thus can promote digestion of protein in both the stomach and small intestine. As a proteolytic enzyme it assists the body’s own digestive mechanisms in reducing very large, complex protein molecules into smaller peptide units or individual amino acids. Bromelain can digest proteins and may help relieve stomach upset or heartburn, particularly when used in conjunction with other enzymes such as amylase and lipase. A study in 2008 issue of “Clinical Immunology” found bromelain enzyme decreases inflammation in ulcerative colitis and reduces the secretion of cytokines in IBS.


Bromelain enzyme inhibits formation of prostaglandin E-2, a chemical that causes inflammation, and it also helps to stimulate the production of prostaglandin E-1, an anti-inflammatory chemical. In a clinical study of adults who experienced mild acute knee pain for three months or less, bromelain enzyme  demonstrated anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Administration of bromelain presurgically can reduce the average number of days for complete disappearance of pain and inflammation. A study conducted by an orthopedic surgeon showed that giving bromelain to 59 of his patients resulted in a clear reduction in both swelling and discomfort. A  study published in  2002 issue of Phytomedicine also show that bromelain enzyme reduces knee joint pain in a dose dependent manner. Bromelain enzyme works by blocking selected proinflammatory metabolites that accelerate the inflammatory process. In animal studies, bromelain was the most powerful of nine substances examined, on a par with the drug prednisone.


Some studies suggest that it may help reduce congestion, improve breathing and suppress coughing.  In a double blind study comparing the use of bromelain with placebo, 87 % of those patients who took bromelain reported good to excellent results compared with 68% of the placebo group. A study 2006 issue of Alternative Medicine Review, bromelain enzyme in doses of 500 mg to 1,000 mg per day is effective in sinusitis as an anti-inflammatory and mucolytic. Commission E approved bromelain to treat swelling and inflammation after surgery, particularly sinus surgery.

Immune System

Some scientific evidence from test tubes and animals suggests that bromelain can fight against infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria. A 2005 study done in Germany showed that bromelain activated immune cells that fight infection. Other studies suggest that it may also boost the amount of certain immune system hormones, called cytokines. Bromelain has also been shown to remove T-cell CD44 molecules from lymphocytes and to affect T-cell activation.

Antibiotics and Bromelain

Some studies have shown it to be as effective as antibiotics for treatment of , bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and dental and kidney infection. In a double-blind study, 100 % of people who received bromelain enzyme/trypsin in combination with antibiotics had a resolution of their infection, compared to only 46 % of those who received antibiotics alone. Combined bromelain and antibiotic therapy has been shown to be more effective than antibiotics alone in a variety of conditions including pneumonia, bronchitis, pyelonephritis and sinusitis.


The protease enzyme is beneficial in reducing the clumping of platelets, the formation of plaques in the arteries and the formation of blood clots. Clumping or aggregation may contribute to arterial blockage, heart attack or stroke. Studies have shown that bromelain can also be useful in the reduction of platelet clumping and blood clots in the bloodstream, especially in the arteries. A drastic reduction in the incidence of coronary infarct after administration of potassium and magnesium orotate along with 120-400 mg bromelain enzyme per day has been reported.


When applied to the burned skin it can be rather effective in case of very severe burns. One study using a debridement agent that is derived from bromelain to treat people with second- and third degree burns showed a benefit. When applied to the skin, bromelain removes dead cells in a process known as debridement.

Bromelain Dosage

Bromelain is available in tablets or capsules and as a topical to treat burns. Dosages for bromelain vary, depending on the reason that you’re taking it. The German Commission E recommends 80-320 mg two to three times per day. As  digestive aid, the recommended dosage is generally 500 mg three times per day. Studies on heart patients indicates that increasing the dosage of bromelain to 400 mg  – 1,000 mg per day may reduce the symptoms of angina pectoris. Inflammation; 500-mg to 2,000-mg per day. For best results, the total daily dosage should be divided into 4 doses and taken an hour before or after food. Bromelain has to be enteric-coated so that it will not be used as a digestive enzyme if activated in the stomach. When taken on an empty stomach approximately 40 percent of the bromelain is absorbed into the bloodstream intact.

Bromelain Side Effects

Bromelain is generally safe and free of side effects when taken in moderate amounts. Occasionally individuals may develop an allergic rash from bromelain. If you are allergic to pineapple, do not take bromelain. Bromelain enzyme may increase bleeding risk when taken together with drugs that are known to increase bleeding. You should stop taking bromelain at least 2 weeks before surgery.

Lycopene Dosage and Side Effects

Lycopene, part of the carotenoid family, is a pigment that helps give red fruits and vegetables their color. Carotenoids are fat soluble and so in the human body are found in fatty tissue and transported by lipoproteins. Food lycopene is found in high amounts in tomato products. Beside tomatoes, other pink- and red-hued fruits contain lycopene.

Lycopene Benefits

Lycopene is a proven antioxidant and neutralizes free radicals which may damage the body’s cells. Laboratory experiments indicate that lycopene is a more effective antioxidant than other carotenoids, including beta-carotene. Antioxidants protect against free radicals, highly reactive atoms and molecules that can damage DNA and other important molecules in the cell.


Lycopene research suggests that it may reduce the chance of serum lipid oxidisation, macular degenerative disease and lung, cervix, prostate, bladder and skin cancer. Over the long term, carotenoid-deficient diets may increase tissue damage from free radical activity, and increase risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and cancers. Lycopene also shows anti-mutagenic action against chemically induced DNA damage. An Italian study showed that people who ate at least one tomato-based product per day had a 50 percent lower chance of contracting digestive tract cancer than those who did not eat tomatoes. In a 1995 Harvard University study conducted with 47,894 men, researchers found that eating 10 or more servings a week of tomato products was linked with a reduced risk of prostate cancer by as much a 34 percent. A study published in Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention in 2001 noted that increased blood levels of carotenoids like lycopene reduced the risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene has also been demonstrated to have other possible anti cancer activities particularly relating to modulation of intercellular communication and alterations in intracellular signalling pathways.

Macular Degeneration

Free-radical damage can become apparent in the eyes through the development of cataracts or macular degeneration. Studies provide evidence that nutritional antioxidants slow down the progression of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Tomatoes may protect the eyes by deterring macular degeneration, a cause of vision loss in older people, suggests new University of Maryland research that found high levels of lycopene in eye tissue.


There is some evidence that lycopene, administered systemically, may be an effective treatment for gingivitis. A study done at the Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences in Bangalore, India has demonstrated that lycopene may also be effective in treating and preventing gingivitis. The study authors concluded that lycopene shows great promise as a treatment modality in gingivitis.


Asthma is a chronic disease that involves inflammation of the lungs.New research recently published in The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry has found that lycopene may protect against inflammation in the lungs and reduce the risk of developing asthma. Researchers concluded supplementation with lycopene reduces allergic inflammation both in the lungs and systemically, by decreasing Th2 cytokine responses.

Lycopene Food Sources

Fruits and vegetables that are high in lycopene include not only tomatoes, but watermelon, pink grapefruit, rosehip and papaya. Research shows that lycopene can be absorbed more efficiently by the body after it has been processed into juice, sauce, paste, or ketchup. Eating lycopene-rich vegetables and fruits together with a small amount of oil or fat  increases the amount of lycopene absorbed by the intestines.

Lycopene Dosage

The optimal dose of lycopene is not known. The recommended daily intake of lycopene is 6 to 30 milligrams. The man in the Harvard study with the greatest protection against cancer consumed at least 6.5 mg per day. Supplementing with lycopene in doses up to 75 mg daily for the long term does not seem to pose any health risks. The serum concentration after a single dose peaks at 24 to 48 hours post dose.

Lycopene Side Effects

People who are allergic to tomatoes or lycopene should not take lycopene supplements. High intakes of lycopene-rich foods or supplements may result in a deep orange discoloration of the skin. Also, if you are taking any prescription drugs you should talk to your health care provider.

Astaxanthin Dosage and Benefits

Astaxanthin is a red colored carotenoid pigment that naturally occurs in most marine crustaceans and some species of fish. Astaxanthin is what gives the pink and red color to salmon, shrimp and lobster. This pigment is commercially produced from the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis, the richest known natural source for Astaxanthin. This microalgae often grows in places that are exposed to harsh environmental conditions such as intense sunlight, excessive heat during its dormant phase.


Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species are produced during normal life-sustaining aerobic metabolism. In excess, these molecules can cause protein and lipid oxidation and DNA damage. Recent scientific findings indicate that Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant and can serve as a potent free-radical scavenger. It’s 6,000 times more effective than vitamin C, 800 times more than CoQ10 and 550 times more than vitamin E or green tea. Results of a 2002 study into the effects of astaxanthin on liver function showed that it protects the liver from oxidative damage. It also seems to decrease oxidative consumption of glutathione  and increase hepatoprotective antioxidant activity. Astaxanthin provides protection from more types of free radicals than many other antioxidants. Additionally, scientific research has proven that astaxanthin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and the central nervous system better than many other antioxidants. This feature allows its benefits to reach and protect the eyes and brain from free radical damage.

İmmune System

Astaxanthin seems to improve the immune response by increasing the number of antibody producing cells. Enhanced dietary concentrations of astaxanthin have demonstrated the ability to support healthy immunoglobulin activity and immune function. Increases immune system function including heightened production of antibody-secreting cells and Interleukin 2 and suppression of Interferon-gamma. Several tests carried out at the University of Minnesota found it enhances antibody production in mouse spleen cells by exerting actions on T-cells, especially T-helper cells.


Astaxanthin showed potential benefits against various cancer cells in animal studies or test-tube studies. By quenching free radical production in oxidatively stressed tissues, astaxanthin can prevent the DNA damage that is required to initiate many forms of cancer. Astaxanthin inhibitsthe enzyme 5-a-reductase responsible for prostate growth and astaxanthin supplementation was proposed as a method   benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Dietary astaxanthin was found to significantly inhibit the occurrence of colonic mucosal ulcers, dysplastic crypts, and colonic adenocarcinoma at week 20 in a study of mice.


Astaxanthin possess strong anti-inflammatory properties which are beneficial for muscle and bone pains, and joint inflammations. Inflammation is an immune system response. However, excess or chronic inflammation can be damaging to our health. C-reactive protein measures general levels of inflammation in your body. C-reactive protein (CRP) is released by the body in response to acute injury, infection, or other inflammatory stimuli. A study was done in 2006 on the effects of Astaxanthin on CRP levels. After 3 months of taking Astaxanthin supplements, 43% of the treatment group had low enough levels of CRP to take them out of the high risk category. The double-blind study by an independent research group of 15 subjects taking astaxanthin and eight subjects taking placebo found that subjects who took astaxanthin for 56 days showed an average decrease in their measured CRP levels of over 20%.  A health survey of 247 astaxanthin users showed that over 80 percent of those reporting back pain and symptoms from osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis reported an improvement from supplementing with astaxanthin. Astaxanthin has been shown to be a viable alternative to anti-inflammatories such as aspirin, acetaminophen and the prescription drug Celebrex.


Astaxanthin is a very good tonic for the heart. In laboratory studies, astaxanthin improves endothelial function, allowing arteries to respond normally to stimuli that get them to relax. To carry out their research, the Japanese scientists recruited 61 people, aged 25-60 years, with mildly abnormal blood lipids. The results showed that the 12 and 18 mg per day doses of astaxanthin reduced the participant’s triglyceride levels by 25% and 24%, respectively. Another potential benefit for cardiovascular health may be Astaxanthin abilityto decrease blood pressure.

Eye Health

Recently several published clinical studies have shown a link between astaxanthin intake and the reduction of eye fatigue. A study by Nakamura, demonstrated significant improvements in reducing asthenopia and positive accommodation in 4 mg per day and 12 mg per day groups. Another study showed that astaxanthin is effective in preventing ameliorating retinal injury and the degeneration of photoreceptors due to ageing. A study by Nagaki, demonstrated that subjects  who received 5 mg astaxanthin per day for one month showed a %54 reduction of eye fatigue complaints.

Alzheimer’s  Disease

Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Many studies indicate that astaxanthin may be a potential candidate to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson disease. Astaxanthin exhibits exceptionally potent free-radical scavenging activity, and protects your cells, organs and body tissues from oxidative damage. Recent research has validated astaxanthin’s ability to protect our central nervous system. Research conducted by Japanese scientists shows that an antioxidant called astaxanthin prevents the build-up of dangerous compounds linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s.


The formation of ulcers in the stomach is part of an inflammatory process that astaxanthin can protect one from. Experimental studies have shown that using astaxanthin is protective against the development of ulcer disease due to a variety of factors. Extract out of algae that have astaxanthin is noticed to help in alleviating the pain due to gastric ulcers while reducing the inflammation at the same time. Animal research shows that high levels of astaxanthin might both prevent and treat gastric ulcers, according to an article in the  2008 issue of the European Journal of Pharmacology.  Scandinavian researchers have found that astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation and bacterial load.


Oxidative stress reduces the sperm quality which can cause infertility. As an antioxidant, Astaxanthin may be helpful in reversing or improving damage to sperm caused by oxidative damage. A clinical study involving 30 men showed that taking 16 mg daily of astaxanthin increased sperm motility and other measured sperm parameters. In the astaxanthin group, 54,5 % of the couples were pregnant within three month meanwhile only 5,4% in the placebo group had a baby.

UV Radiation

UV radiation from sunlight is the most potent environmental risk factor in skin cancer pathogenesis. Astaxanthin protects the cells from oxidation and UV- radiation. In a 1998 study with rats, astaxanthin was found to be 100 times stronger than beta-carotene and 1000 times stronger than lutein in preventing UVA light-induced oxidative stress. Astaxanthin is more efficient than other carotenoids in protecting the skin from UV damage, according to recent in vitro study findings. Unlike other lesser antioxidants, Astaxanthin captures and eliminates free radicals by binding them to its molecular structure.

Astaxanthin Food Sources

Astaxanthin is derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae and cultivated under highly controlledconditions. Lobster, shrimp, crab, crawfish and other crustaceans are very high in astaxanthin. Fish such as rainbow trout,  salmon, pink salmon and red bream are great sources of astaxanthin thanks to their diet. Analyses have shown that wild Atlantic salmon have between 3 and 11 mg astaxanthin per kilogram in muscle. Red peppers, and other red-pigmented vegetables and fruits contain astaxanthin.

Astaxanthin Dosage

Recommended dosages range from 2-8 mg/day for preventive measures up to. Higher doses up to 20 mg have been shown to be tolerated, but have not been studied beyond 2 weeks. (One human study noted no side effects with 21 mg daily but was only 2 weeks in duration). Astaxanthin has been found to be a very potent lipid soluble antioxidant through in vitro and ex vivo studies. Since astaxanthin is fat-soluble, it is best taken with a meal that contains fat. Synthetic Astaxanthin is produced from petrochemicals. Natural Astaxanthin is biosynthesized by living microalgae (H. Pluvialis) whereas. Natural Astaxanthin possesses greater biological activity than the artificial synthetic Astaxanthin. Synthetic astaxanthin still dominates farmed salmon industry worldwide. Synthetic astaxanthin fetches $2000 per kg, while the natural product is sold for over $7000 per kg.