Pomegranate Benefits for Health

The pomegranate is a member of the Punicaceae family. The fruit is comprised of peel, seeds, and aril. An average pomegranate contains approximately 600 juicy seeds, which are encapsulated in white pith. Pomegranates are high in polyphenols, including flavonoids and tannins.

Pomegranate Benefits

Pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) contains a variety of chemicals that might have antioxidant properties. Pomegranate  is high in 3 different types of polyphenols, a strong form of antioxidants. The three types – anthocyanins, ellagic acid, tannins – are present in many fruits, but fresh pomegranate juice contains especially high levels of all three. Preliminary studies indicate that pomegranate juice may contain nearly three times the total antioxidant ability compared to the same quantity of  red wine or green tea. Some research show that chemicals in pomegranate juice might slow the progression of atherosclerosis and possibly fight cancer cells.

Cardiovascular Disease

PomegranatePomegranate juice contributes curing and preventing cardiovascular disease. Studies demonstrate that the different and high antioxidant content decreases inflammation and thickening of the artery walls. Researchers attribute heart healthy benefits to polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which are plant pigments that give the pomegranate its red hue. A study reported in “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences” found that pomegranate juice combats hardening of the arteries and related diseases like heart attacks and strokes. Researchers in Israel have shown that drinking a daily glass of the fruit’s juice can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. “Pomegranate juice contains the highest antioxidant capacity compared to other juices, green tea and red wine ,” said Professor Michael Aviram, who led the team.

Pomegranate juice may improve blood flow to the heart in individuals with ischemic coronary heart disease. In a clinical trial of 45 patients with coronary heart disease and myocardial ischemia, participants who drank approximately 8 fluid ounces of pomegranate juice daily for 3 months had less ischemia during a stress test. Study participants who did not drink the juice, meanwhile, had evidence of more stress-induced ischemia. New research evaluated heart patients with severe carotid artery blockages. Pomegranate was shown to have strong anti-atherogenic properties in healthy humans and in mice with plaque buildup. Participants were given an ounce of pomegranate juice each day for a year. Not only did study participants’ blood pressure lower by over 12%, but there was a 30 % decline  in atherosclerotic plaque. Participants who did not take the pomegranate juice saw their atherosclerotic plaque increase by 9%. In other studies, powerful antioxidant compounds found in pomegranates have shown to reduce platelet aggregation and lower blood pressure, factors that prevent both heart attacks and strokes.


Pomegranate juice and extract, inhibit the proliferation of various prostate cancercell linesin vitro and induce apoptoticcell death in a dose-dependent manner. Pomegranate juice may slow prostate cancer growth. The juice appeared to suppress the growth of cancer cells and the increase in cancer cell death in laboratory experiments, according to research from UCLA. In a study of men who had undergone therapy for prostate cancer, 8 ounces of pomegranate juice every day kept their Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels stable thereby reducing the need for more treatment such as chemotherapy or hormone therapy. The ellagitannins found in pomegranates juice have the ability to prevent cancer cells from becoming mobile. Researches also show reduced blood supply to tumors which prevents cancer cells from obtaining nutrients. Mice that had been inoculated with human prostate cancer cells received a four week therapy of pomegranate  extract. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor size and tumor vessel density.

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in prostate cancer. A study reported in 2010 investigated the effects of a POMx  (10 µg/mL concentration of pomegranate extract prepared from skin and arils minus seeds) on the IGF system. Treating LAPC4 prostate cancer cells with POMx resulted in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis.  Pomegranate may help prevent and slow the growth of some types of breast cancer. In the lab, pomegranate extracts inhibited human breast cancer cells’ ability to proliferate and spread to other areas and induced programmed cell death. Pomegranate showed efficacy against both estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent breast cancer cells. Pomegranate may also help reduce the risk of colon. Pomegranate extract reduced the number and size of experimentally induced colon tumors in animal subjects. In the lab, pomegranate juice inhibited the proliferation and increased programmed cell death of human colon cancer cells.


Studies have shown that pomegranate extract have anti-inflammatory properties that stop the destruction of joints caused by osteoarthritis. Researchers at “Case Western Reserve University” have reported that tissue cultures of human cartilage cells respond to pomegranate extract. In laboratory tests, the pomegranate extract; 1-Cut levels of an inflammatory chemical called IL-1b (interleukin-1b). 2-Stopped enzymes that erode cartilage.  Scientists said their findings “indicate the pomegranate fruit extract or compounds derived from it may inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis and may also be a useful nutritive supplement for maintaining joint integrity and function.

Erectile Dysfunction and Fertility

Pomegranate juice may help increase sexual performance and fertility. Men and women who drank a glass a day for a fortnight were found to have increased levels of the sex hormone testosterone. A study on 58 participants aged between 21 and 64 found significantly increased testosterone levels in both sexes at the end of the two week experiment. A glass of pomegranate juice every day may help manage erectile dysfunction. Writing in the International Journal of Impotence Research, researchers from The Male Clinic, Beverly Hills, and University of California, report that 47% of participants reported erections improvements as a result of pomegranate juice, compared to only 32%  in the placebo group.

A animal-based study has been conducted on 28 male rats to examine the sperm production after giving them pomegranate juice. The study has successfully showed that pomegranate juice significantly enhanced sperm count of those rates. Compared with the mice drinking only water, the mice drinking concentrated pomegranate juice experienced a 48.5% decrease in their blood levels of malondialdehyde (a reactive carbonyl compound and a major end product of lipid oxidation), and a 63.5%  decrease in the levels of the chemical in their sperm.

Walnut Benefits and Uses

Walnut is an edible seed of the tree nut Juglans regia. These nutrient contain high levels of polyphenols, phytochemicals that have antioxidant effects. Also, walnuts are an excellent source of a proteins, fiber, and manganese, magnesium and copper.

Walnut Benefits

Researchers from Pennsylvania told the American Chemical Society that walnuts contain the highest amount of antioxidants compared to other nuts. Antioxidants protect cells against damage caused by harmful molecules known as free radicals. The researchers said that all nuts have good nutritional qualities but walnuts are healthier than peanuts, almonds, pistachios and pecans. Dr Joe Vinson, from the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania, tested the antioxidant levels of nine different types of nuts and discovered that a handful of walnuts contained twice as many antioxidants as a handful of any other commonly eaten nut. “Twenty-eight grams of walnuts have more antioxidants than the sum of what the average person gets from fruits and vegetables,” he says.

Heart Disease

WalnutsNuts, like almonds, hazel nuts, Brazil nuts, peanuts, walnuts and cashews can all play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease, according to a Harvard review. Walnuts are a good source of the healthy fat alpha linolenic acid. (One-quarter cup of walnuts provides all the alpha linolenic acid you need in a day). New researches have associated a higher intake of alpha linolenic acid to a reduced risk of heart disease and heart attack in men. One study looked at nuts rich in alpha linolenic acid (ALA), like walnuts, and found that they had a heart-protective effect during times of acute stress. A meta-analysis reported in the new ssue of the “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” evaluates how the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid ALA offers protective effects on cardiovascular diseases. The study found ALA to be linked  with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease death.

Besides omega-3 fatty acids that prevents erratic heart rhythms and regulate plaque formation in blood vessels, the amino acid arginine in walnuts improves the elasticity of blood vessels. Overweight people can help protect themselves from heart disease and diabetes by adding walnuts to their diet. A group of at-risk adults who were put on a walnut-enriched diet saw improved endothelial function, which impacts inflammation and controls blood pressure, according to study out of Yale University. Due to the strength of evidence supporting cardiovascular health, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a qualified health claim for walnuts in March 2004.


Numerous substances in walnuts, such as gamma tocopherol, polyphenols, and phytosterols, may offer protection against cancer development. In a study, reported in “Nutrition and Cancer“, studied whether consumption of walnuts could affect growth of human breast cancer tumors (MDA-MB 231) implanted into mice. After 35 days, the breast cancer tumors of the walnut fed mice were significantly less. Recent research from the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio demonstrates that eating a modest amount of walnuts can protect against prostate cancer. Scientists  at the UT Health Science Center injected immune-deficient mice with human prostate cancer cells. Three of 16 mice eating the walnut-enriched diet developed prostate tumors, compared with 14 of 32 mice on the non-walnut control diet.”We found the results to be stunning because there were so few tumors in animals consuming the walnuts and these tumors grew much more slowly than in the other animals,” disclosed study senior author Russel Reiter.


Since there’s a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in walnuts, they’re important for brain health. Insufficient omega 3 intake has been associated to depression and decline in cognitive function. A study done at “Purdue University” demonstrated that children with a lower concentration of omega-3 fatty acids have a higher risk of hyperactivity, learning disorders, and behavioral problems. Although research has not found a way to ward off dementia cognitive decline may be preventable. Consuming specific foods, being physically active, and engaging in social activities may help maintain and increase cognitive health. Beyond protecting against age-associated problems, a British Journal of Nutrition animal study found that walnuts may improve working memory, problem-solving and motor function. The combination of antioxidants and alpha linolenic acid in walnuts may provide antiamyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, thereby protecting brain cells. An in vitro study using walnut extract found that it counteracted oxidative stress and cell death caused by amyloid beta-protein, a major component of amyloid deposits and senile plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.


A Yale study reported in “Diabetes Care” finds walnuts improve blood flow in adults with type 2 diabetes. Endothelial function significantly improved after consumption of the walnut-enriched diet compared to the diet without walnuts. The scientists concluded that a walnut-enriched diet may improve endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes, thus reducing overall cardiac risk. New research reported online by the “Journal of Nutrition”, found an inverse correlation between walnut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in two large prospective cohorts of US women: the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHS II. Scientists followed approximately 138,000 women over a 10-year period and found that those who ate two or more 1-oz servings of walnuts per week were 24% less likely to develop diabetes compared with those who ate fewer or no walnuts.

Male Fertility

Walnuts have been associated to a positive effect on sperm development. Eating around two handfuls of walnuts a day ameliorates sperm health in young men, a study in the journal “Biology of Reproduction” suggests. In this study, 117 healthy men aged 21 to 35 were randomized either to continue eating their usual diet or adding 2.6 ounces of walnuts to their usual diet. Sperm shape, movement and vitality improved in men who added walnuts to their diet over twelve weeks. The control group experienced no changes.

Flaxseed Benefits and Nutrition Facts

Flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.)  are the tiny, brown seeds of the flax plant. The seeds produce a fixed oil known as linseed oil or flaxseed oil. Flaxseed’s therapeutic effects come from the fact that it’s high in fiber and omega-3 fatty acids, as well as phytochemicals called lignans. Flax has been shown to help prevent heart disease, reduce symptoms of inflammatory disorders, protect against cancer, and ease the effects of Type 2 diabetes.

Flaxseed Benefits and Studies

Flax contains disease-fighting compounds, primarily the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA),  lignans and fiber. Flaxseed acts like a laxative because of its fiber content. Phytoestrogens (lignans), may help protect against some kinds of cancer. Other health effects of flaxseed, such as protection from heart disease and arthritis, are due to a high concentration of the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Flaxseed contains 35% of its mass as oil, of which 55% is ALA. Other foods and oils contain ALA. However, at approximately 7 g per tablespoon, flaxseed oil is by far the richest source. Flax seed has been given in studies at doses from 15 to 50 g/day.


Flax is an excellent source of both soluble and insoluble fiber, providing 3 g of fiber per tablespoon. This helps keep the bowels regular. Flaxseed’s laxative effects come from the fiber and mucilage content in the seeds. Approximately 40% of flax seed is made up of fiber, about 10% soluble fiber and 30% insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber dissolves in water and forms a gel that travels through intestines. Insoluble fiber stays intact, travels through gut and helps pass food. If you are taking flax seed for constipation, consume 2 tbsp. Like other sources of fiber, flaxseed should be taken with plenty of fluids. In a clinical trial, 55 participants with chronic constipation caused by irritable bowel syndrome received either ground flaxseed or psyllium seed  daily for three months. Those taking flaxseed had significantly fewer problems with constipation, abdominal pain. Commission E (Germany’s regulatory agency for herbs) authorizes the use of flaxseed for various digestive problems, such as chronic constipation, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and general stomach discomfort.

Menopausal Symptoms

A few studies have shown flaxseed to be as efficacious in treating hot flashes and night sweats as hormone replacement therapy. Flaxseed has been given in doses of 25 to 40 g/day in studies and demonstrated effect in postmenopausal women suffering hot flushes. A 2002 study in Obstetrics and Gynecology found that flax seed supplements were equally as effective as hormone replacement therapy in reducing menopausal symptoms. In a clinical trial, 28 women consumed four tablespoons of ground flaxseed daily—two in the morning, two at night. After 6 weeks, the frequency of their hot flashes dropped, on average, from 7.3 to 3.6 a day. In a study was conducted on 188 women in 2009 and found no statistically significant difference in mean hot flash scores between women taking flaxseed and those taking a placebo. Osteoporosis is characterised by low bone mass, which leads to an increase risk of fractures, particularly the hips, spine and wrists. Animal-based studies demonstrate that adding flaxseed oil to the diet could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal and women with diabetes, according to a report to be published in the International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health.


FlaxseedFlax contains lignans and ALA, both of which decrease inflammatory reactions. Lignans and ALA block the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Flax ALA has been shown to lower blood levels of a compound called (CRP) C-reactive protein. (Patients with elevated basal levels of CRP are at an increased risk for, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. CRP levels of 0.3 mg/dL or greater are related with a higher risk of death in patients with acute coronary syndromes). Through these properties, flax consumption may help prevent and treat disorders characterized in part by an over-stimulated immune system. Such disorders include atherosclerosis, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis.

ALA in flaxseed enhances phospholipid ALA, DHA and EPA levels in mononuclear cells, neutrophils, lipoproteins, and platelets. This change in membrane phospholipid content results in reduced biosynthesis of arachidonic acid from linoleic acid and decreased production of the proinflammatory eicosanoids, LTB4 (leukotriene B4) and TXA2 (thromboxane A2). Lignans have been shown to decrease the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-6 in microglial cells of rats. In a clinical trial of 28 healthy men, consuming flax oil for four weeks resulted in a decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1ß production of approximately 30% in mononuclear cells. In the Nurses’ Health Study, the greater the ALA intake, the reduce the concentration of the inflammatory markers in the blood. These results indicate  that ALA helps reduce inflammation and therefore lowers chronic  disease risk.


Flaxseed decreases the production of major systemic markers of inflammatory activity, including eicosanoids, cytokines and platelet-activating factor. Flax is very high in the omega-3 fat ALA (alpha-linolenic acid). Two other omega-3 fats are DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). All of these omega-3 fatty acids help lessen inflammation, which is a trigger for heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. In a clinical trial, the ALA content of red blood cell membranes increased 225%, and their content of EPA increased 150%, in healthy men who ate a diet enriched with flax oil for twelve weeks.

The results of one large cohort study and two clinical trials indicate that flax and its essential omega-3 fat (ALA), decrease the blood levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules. Cell adhesion molecules are biomarkers of early events in the development of atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. Results from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study of 45,722 men showed that each one gram of ALA in the daily diet was associated with a 47% lower risk of heart disease among men with low intakes of DHA and EPA.

Populations with high intakes of ALA have a low risk of cardiovascular diseases such as CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke. In a case-control study  of 96 middle-aged men with incident stroke, found that a significant 0.06% increase in phospholipid ALA content was associated with a 28% decrease in the risk of stroke. A 0.13% increase in the serum level of ALA was linked with a 37% decrease in the risk of stroke. In the Lyon Diet Heart Study, ALA was associated with a reduction risk of recurrent fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and a 73% decreased in risk of primary end points between the experimental and control groups.  Some researches have showed that diets rich in flaxseed omega-3s help prevent hardening of the arteries and keep plaque from being deposited in the arteries partly by keeping white blood cells from sticking to the blood vessels’ inner linings. Regular use of flaxseed may influence the progression of atherosclerosis. Lignans in flaxseed have been shown to lessen atherosclerotic plaque buildup by up to 75%.

Arrhythmias usually precede a myocardial infarction and may ultimately cause death. Omega-3 fatty acids may protect against arrhythmia by helping heart muscle cells remain stable electrically and by preventing them from becoming hyperexcitable. In test tube studies of rat heart cells, omega-3 fats decreased the electrical excitability of the heart cells, making them less likely to develop abnormal heart rhythms. Pure preparations of ALA, DHA  and  EPA are equally good at protecting against fatal arrhythmias in dogs. In a study, pure solutions of ALA, EPA and DHA were infused separately. All three omega-3 fats reduced significantly the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation and protected a majority of dogs from fatal arrhythmias. According to a study; eating flaxseed was associated with reduced blood pressure in people with hypertension. A research team led by Dr. Grant Pierce, assessed 110 hypertensive patients with peripheral artery disease, which is strongly associated with high blood pressur. They sought to determine if adding 30 g of milled flaxseed each day for 6 months would lower blood pressure. In the placebo group, systolic blood pressure increased slightly while diastolic blood pressure remained steady. In the flaxseed group, systolic blood pressure dropped an average 15 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure fell an average 8 mm Hg. “These anti-hypertensive effects of flax seed are amongst the most strong ever observed,” Dr. Grant Pierce said. “The change in blood pressure from flaxseed could result in about a 50% reduction of strokes and 30 % less heart attacks.”


Flax contains lignans which reduce the risk of prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women. Flaxseed has been shown to affect intracellular signals within the body that may play a role in breast and prostate cancer growth. Lignans are estrogen-like chemical compounds with antioxidant effects able to scavenge free radicals in the body. Flaxseed is considered to be one of the most important sources of lignans. Flax contains up 75 to 800 times more lignans than other plant sources, such as whole grains and legumes. (When flaxseed is eaten, the lignans are activated by bacteria in the intestine. But, flaxseed oil does not contain the lignan).

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in flax seed has shown promising results in reducing the risk of cancer because of its high concentration of lignans. These compounds interfere with the cancer-promoting effects of estrogen by binding to estrogen receptors. Flaxseed inhibits the growth and metastasis of human breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma in vitro and in mice. In a cell culture study, flaxseed lignans reduced stickiness and movement of breast cancer cells, both properties related to the cancer’s ability to spread or metastasize.

A 2004 article reported in the Nutrition Journal reports that eating flaxseed, along with plenty of fruits and vegetables, can help reduce risk of cancer. In a study, mice were injected with human cancer cells and then fed a typical laboratory chow diet for eight weeks. At eight weeks, rats were randomly assigned into a group that continued with the chow diet or to a 10% flaxseed diet. At the end of the study period, flax seed supplementation was shown to reduce the tumor growth rate and reduce metastasis by 45%. In another study reported in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research in 2010, flaxseed oil prevented breast tumors from growing in cancer patients.

Findings from a “Duke University Medical Center” small study on pre-surgical prostate cancer patients indicate “a flaxseed-supplemented, fat-restricted diet may affect prostate cancer biology and associated biomarkers”. In a clinical trial, ate a low-fat diet with 30 g of flaxseed daily lowered PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels in men with a precancerous prostate condition called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In a study of 25 men with prostate cancer found that a low-fat diet along with flaxseed reduced serum testosterone, slowed the growth rate of cancer cells, and increased the death rate of cancer cells. One study presented at the 43rd annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology  demonstrated that consuming flaxseed can stop prostate cancer tumors from growing. “Excited that this study showed  that flaxseed is safe and associated with a protective effect on prostate cancer “ said Dr Wendy Demark-Wahnefried. After flax seed is consumed, its lignans are converted in the intestine into enterolactone, which then enter the bloodstream. New findings suggests that flaxseed may help avert prostate cancer by boosting blood levels of useful enterolactones. In a study that investigated blood enterolactone levels in men with prostate cancer versus healthy controls, men with the highest enterolactone levels were 82% less likely to have prostate cancer.

Cod Liver Oil Benefits and Studies

Cod liver oil is extracted from cod, which is a cold-water fish. This  oil has a long history of use and great cultural importance for the people of Ireland, Scotland, northern Europe, and Iceland, where it is consumed to treat rickets, rheumatism, and a variety of diseases. Cod liver oil is extracted from cod livers, whereas fish oil is extracted from the body flesh of fish. Cod liver oil contains much more vitamins A and D per unit weight than regular fish oil. The types of omega-3 oils are the same for both products.

Cod Liver Oil Benefits and Researches

Cod liver oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, and vitamin D. The vitamin A in cod liver oil supports immune system. This vitamin regulates critical functions such as cell division and bone growth and helps keep the skin healthy.Vitamin A deficiency is a important cause of blindness in the world.

Vitamin D is necessary to keep a balance between phosphorus and calcium in the body. Vitamin D affects DNA through vitamin D receptors, which bind to specific locations of the human. Researchers have mapped the points at which vitamin D interacts with our DNA – and identified over two hundred genes that it directly influences. Deficiency of vitamin D is associated to rickets, bone softening, osteoporosis, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. Several findings indicate that adequate levels of vitamin D may reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, some cancers, high blood pressure and autoimmune disorders. A individual’s vitamin D level is gauged by measuring the blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. When levels go below 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) the person has vitamin D deficiency.

Cod liver oil is rich in DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). EPA is the precursor of important prostaglandins, localized tissue hormones that help the body deal with inflammation; and DHA is very important for the development and function of the brain and nervous system. In several studies, the elongated omega-3 fats found in cod liver oil have been shown to improve brain function, memory, immune response, asthma, allergies, learning and behavioral disorders.


Cod Liver OilRickets is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. Insufficiency of vitamin D can lead to rickets in children (soft bones that can be painful and deformed) and osteomalacia in adults (soft bones, bone pain, and muscle weakness). Vitamin D can prevent and treat some bone problems such as rickets in children  and osteomalacia in adults. By  clinical studies conducted in Vienna between 1919 and 1922, Dr Harriette Chick and her coworkers were able to confirm the preventive and therapeutic value of cod liver oil and sunlight against rickets in young infants. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the antirachitic effects of cod liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not just treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States.


Vitamin D deficiency, which is usually seen in older people, can lead to osteoporosis and is associated to an increased risk for broken hips. The vitamin D in cod liver oil helps build bone density in adolescents to lower the risk of osteoporosis and other bone related problems later in life. In a animal-based study, the effect of cod liver oil was investigated in the prevention of  bone loss in the ovariectomized female rats. One group of ovariectomized rats received an estrogen implantation at the time  of operation and the second group was supplemented orally with cod liver oil daily for eight weeks. It was found that estrogen implantation as well as cod liver oil supplementation in ovariectomized rats increased the calcium  level in femur. Therefore, cod liver oil may benefit postmenopausal women at risk of osteoporosis.


Cod liver oil has anti-inflammatory effects that help quell the inflammation of arthritis. Some researches have shown that cod liver oil may help with the symptoms of arthritis. Cod liver oil likely works in two different ways in preventing arthritis. It is a rich source of Omega-3 fatty acids and of vitamin D. These substances modify immune reactions in the body and help to prevent the body being attacked by itself in what is called an autoimmune reaction.

A pilot study studied the efficacy of cod liver oil supplements on symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Forty three participants with rheumatoid arthritis took 1g of cod liver oil daily for three months. Supplementation significantly reduced morning joint stiffness for 52 % of patients. Joint pain was reduced in 42% of patients and joint swelling was reduced in 40% of patients. Intensity of pain was reduced in 67.5% of patients. Results of the Cardiff study of 25 arthritis patients awaiting knee replacement surgery demonstrated that 86% of patients who took 2,000 mg of cod liver oil capsules daily had absent or significantly reduced levels of one of the enzymes that cause cartilage damage. Also, the result demonstrated a marked reduction in some of the enzymes that cause joint pain in those people taking the cod liver oil.“The data suggests cod liver oil has a dual mode of action, potentially slowing down the cartilage degeneration inherent in osteoarthritis, and also reducing factors that cause pain and inflammation,” Professor Bruce Caterson said.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common prescribed medications worldwide. The most frequently known NSAIDs are ibuprofen and asprin. The ibuprofen and other NSAIDs prescribed to millions of patients each year have been linked to a range of adverse effects. A study reported in the March 2008 Rheumatology investigated the effectiveness of cod liver oil on reducing reliance on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Approximately 40 % of the patients in the cod liver oil group were able to wean themselves off of NSAIDs, compared to only 10% in the control group. Deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. A study at “Malmo University” found recently that babies that began breast feeding in hospital were more likely to suffer from rheumatoid arthritis later in life than babies that did not begin breast feeding in hospital and probably went on to bottle feeding.

•Heart Health

Cod liver oil significantly improves heart function. Pure cod liver oil is a important source of these Omega-3. Omega-3 exert a protective property on the heart, by making the heart cells that generate the electric impulses that cause the heart to beat less prone to developing abnormal rhythms. Several researches have showed that Omega-3 fatty acids can significantly reduce the mortality rate of people who have suffered heart attacks. Cod liver oil helps to reduce stickiness in the blood and  helps lower high triglyceride levels. Taking cod liver oil can reduce triglyceride levels by 20% to 50% in individuals with high triglyceride levels.

•Otitis Media

Otitis media (middle ear infection), is an infection of the middle ear common in younger children. In a study at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, researchers found that youngsters prone to otitis media had lower than normal levels of EPA, selenium and vitamin A. When they gave the youngsters cod liver oil, selenium, and a multivitamin, they found the children suffered fewer ear infections.“This study provides preliminary evidence that otitis media may be prevented and that the reliance on antibiotics may be reduced among young children by using nutritional supplements,” said Dr. Linday. The results were reported in the July 2002 edition of the Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology.


With respect to type 1 diabetes, cod liver oil has been shown to potentially lower the likelihood of developing the disease if taken within the first year of life. Studies conducted out by researchers in Norway showed that infants regularly given a spoonful of the oil during their first year were 25 % less likely to develop the disease.

•Cancer Prevention

Lab and animal studies and observational epidemiologic studies demonstrate that higher levels of vitamin D in the body may be linked to lower cancer risk. Higher vitamin D levels in the blood have been associated to lower risk for some types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, reviewed this topic and concluded in a 2008 report that vitamin D may reduce risk of colorectal cancer. According to a 2009 study performed by Norwegian scientists and reported in the International Journal of Cancer, daily supplementation of cod liver oil associated with a higher survival rate among lung cancer patients and cancer patients with solid tumors. A population-based case-control study studied the correlation between vitamin D and breast cancer. Women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer and women without breast cancer participated in the study. Increasing sun exposure between ages 10 and 19 was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Use of cod liver oil  and consumption of milk  were also correlated  with reduced breast cancer risk.

Grape Seed Demonstrates Potent Anti-Cancer Effects

Grape seed are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. A wide variety of phytochemicals, have been shown to possess anti-carcinogenic effects. Among these are the grape seed proanthocyanidins, which are the active ingredients of  GSE (grape-seed extract). Grape seed extract is especially rich in a very strong flavonoid called OPCs (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins). Scientists believe the anti-cancer effects of GSE come from these proanthocyanidins.

Grape Seed Extract Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Substantial in vitro and preclinical in vivo studies have demonstrated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed proanthocyanidins against various forms of cancers in different tumor models. In a study reported by “Carcinogenesis”, Agarwal (investigator at the University of Colorado Cancer Center) explained that grape seed creates conditions that are unfavorable to cancer cell growth. The grape seed extract both damages cancer cells’ DNA and stops the pathways that allow cancer cell repair. A study reported in 2010 in “Pharmaceutical Research” found that GSE (grape seed extract) stopped tumor growth in mice after clinically induced exposure to UVB radiation.

A study reported in the journal “Carcinogenesis” shows that in both cell lines and mouse models, grape seed extract kills head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. In a study, reportedin 2011, found that GSE reduces the risk of squamous cell carcinoma by 74 %. University of Colorado Cancer Center researchers have reported a study in the journal Cancer Letters that shows grape seed extract is a potent agent against colorectal cancer. The researchers think that grape seed extract targets colorectal cancer by causing oxidative stress that leads to the programmed cell death known as apoptosis. Colon and intestinal cancer was inhibited in mice fed 0.5 % GSE for 6 weeks, in a 2010 study published in the journal Neoplasia. At the end of the research, observed a 40 % lessen in the total number of intestinal polyps.

An extract from grape seed laboratory leukemia cells to commit cell suicide, according to scientists from the University of Kentucky. They found that within 24 hours, 76% of leukemia cells had died after being exposed to the grape seed extract.  The scientists then used pharmacologic and genetic approaches to determine how the grape seed extract induced apoptosis. They found that thegrape seed  extract strongly activated the JNK pathway, which then led to up-regulation of Cip/p21, which controls the cell cycle. “These results could have implications for the incorporation of agents such as grape seed extract into prevention or treatment of hematological malignancies and possibly other cancers,” said the study’s lead author, Xianglin Shi.

In a lab experiment reported in 2004 in the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, grape seed extract was effective in blocking division of breast cancer cells in culture, reducing their growth rate by up to 72%. Studies performed by scientists showed that procyanidin dimers, particularly procyanidin B2 dimer from wine extract and found in high quantities in grape seeds, inhibited the activity and expression of this enzyme, which is responsible for the conversion of androgens into estrogens in aromatase-transfected MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their xenografts in athymic nude mice. In other study, grape seed extract exerted a synergistic effect with doxorubicin in inhibiting the growth of estrogen-receptor–expressing MCF-7 cells as well as estrogen-receptor negative MDA-MB468 cells.

In a study; researchers measured the vitamins, minerals and specialty supplements in the diets of 66,227 healthy  women and men, aged 50 to 76. After 8 years of follow-up, compared to those who did not take these supplements, those who took a daily multi-vitamin for at least 8 years were 20% less likely to develop a hematologic cancer; for GSE (grape-seed extract), 43% less likely. 35,239 males were followed over 10 years since 2000 in the VITAL cohort study Men, with “high average use” over 10 years of an individual grape seed extract experienced a 62%  reduced risk of prostate cancer compared to non-users.