Anthocyanins Benefits and Food Sources

Anthocyanin pigments are responsible for the red, purple, and blue colors of many fruits and vegetables. Are a group of different colored pigments where each base color changes as the cell environment changes. Researchers have identified hundreds different anthocyanins, including malvidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and delphinidin. Anthocyanins are believed to display an array of beneficial effects on human health.

Anthocyanins Food Sources

Blueberry, cranberry, bilberry, black raspberry, blackberry, blackcurrant, cherry, strawberrie, purple grapes, red wine, red cabbage, eggplant. Daily intake of total anthocyanins has been estimated to be between 3 and 215 mg/day.

Anthocyanins Benefits

Anthocyanins may help prevent cardiovascular disorders, inflammatory responses, cancer, and degenerative diseases. Anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protect genomic DNA integrity. In recent years, numerous publications have demonstrated that besides their in vitro antioxidant capacity, certain phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins,  proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids, may regulate different signaling pathways involved in cell survival, growth and differentiation. Over 600 structurally distinct anthocyanins have been identified.


As an antioxidant, anthocyanins help rid the body of the free radicals that cause oxidative damage in the body. Anthocyanins and derivatives, protect against a variety of oxidants through a number of mechanisms. Large amounts of free radicals are formed when bodies are exposed to pollution, stress, cigarette smoke, toxic wastes, drugs, aging, and UV radiation. Without antioxidants, we would be prone to numerous diseases and infections.


The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins can help lower the risk of degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. In clinical trial involving 120 patient, those taking 300 mg of an anthocyanin extract daily for three weeks experienced a decrease of between 25% to 60% in many different inflammatory mediators. According to research by “Michigan State University”; indicates  tart cherry anthocyanins are at least 10 times more active than Asprin. Ullevaal University Hospital report that a mixture of anthocyanins from bilberries and blackcurrants reduced levels of transcription factor NF-kB.


In the lab, have been found to inhibit some human tumor cells. Delphinidin and cyanidin inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor in cancer cells, while malvidin is less effective. In vitro and in vivo research trials, anthocyanins have demonstrated marked ability to reduce cancer cell proliferation and to inhibit tumor formation. In a study showed that anthocyanins effectively halted colon cancer cell growth, killing 20 percent of the malignant cells without damaging non-cancerous cells. Anthocyanins and anti-cancer mechanisms; 1- Antioxidation effect, 2-the molecular mechanisms involved in anticarcinogenesis, 3-the molecular mechanisms involved in the apoptosis induction of tumor cells.

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels, and includes coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, raised blood pressure, peripheral artery disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of mortality among human. Anthocyanins have demonstrated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory  properties, and a high intake of anthocyanin have indicated positive effects on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Crude anthocyanin extracts have been administered  both orally and via injection to reduce capillary permeability. The anthocyanins cyanidin and delphinidin have been shown to prevent the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a compound that has stimulates atherosclerosis. According to a study, which was published in 2004 in the ‘Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology’, anthocyanins can protect cardiovascular health from oxidative stress and block the degradation of fat into harmful compounds in blood.


In one German study, 12 diabetic patient took 600 mg anthocyanins daily for two months. At the end of the study, abnormal collagen production was significantly decreased. Is possible that consumption of  fruits containing anthocyanins could have a significant impact on insulin levels in humans. Anthocyanins, plant pigments responsible for the colour of many fruits such as blackberries and cherries, increased insulin production in animal pancreatic cells by 50 %, according to the study. Study, published in the January issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes. In one study, 30 out of 40 people with retinopathy showed serious improvement after taking 120 mg anthocyanin daily for several weeks. None of the control subjects improved.

Fucoidan Cancer Benefits and Studies

Fucoidan is a complex polysaccharide composed largely of fucopyranoside and natural sulphate. About 4 percent of the total dry weight of many types of brown seaweed consists of a polysaccharide known as fucoidan. Fucoidan, sometimes known as fucans and fucoidans was first isolated from brown algae in 1913.  Two different types of fucoidan molecules are found in brown seaweed. The first type, bearing the name F-Fucoidan, consists mainly of sulfated fucose. The second type bears the name U-Fucoidan, and approximately 20 percent of it consists of glucuronic acid.

Fucoidan Cancer Benefits

In vitro studies show that fucoidan has antitumor, antiangiogenic, antiviral and immunomodulatory  effects. Seaweeds containing fucoidan have been found to have anti-tumor activity in mice and Japanese researchers at the Biomedical Research Laboratories have found that Fucoidan caused lymphoma, leukaemia, stomach and colorectal cancer cells to self-destruct. The Research Institute of Glycotechnology Advancement determined that U-fucoidan will successfully destroy a number of rapid-growing cancer cells.

Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found in brown algae; it has been shown to exhibit a number of biological effects, including anti-tumor effects. A French research study in 2002 showed that F-fucoidan can inhibit hyperplasia  in rabbits.  A Japanese research report in 2005 indicated that F-fucoidan can induce apoptosis in human lymphoma cell lines.

In research in Japan, U-fucoidan administered to cancer cells in a laboratory dish were virtually wiped out within 72 hours. This process is known as apoptosis; the destruction of cells from within due to activation by the digestive enzymes contained in the cells themselves. For cells to self-destruct, this mechanism is triggered and the cell’s DNA is rendered useless through the activation of the deoxyribonuclease found within the cell itself.  Another mechanism of antiproliferative properties of fucoidan was shown in vitro and in vivo on a cell line derived from a nonsmall-cell human bronchopulmonary carcinoma.

Fucoidan, a sulfated fucopolysaccharide, inhibits the adhesion process  by blocking lectin-like adhesion molecules  on cell surfaces and therefore interfering with tumor cell colonization. Fucoidan has been shown to inhibit metastasis by preventing adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix. This is achieved by blocking the fibronectin cell-binding domain, necessary for formation of adhesion complexes. At Mie University, in Tsu, Japan, researchers experimented with lung metastasis induced by Lewis lung carcinoma. By injecting fucoidan after the removal of the primary tumor, metastasis was inhibited.

Has been studied as fucoidan may support the gathering of stem cells so they are able to replace dead cells. Fucoidan gives your body the required nourishment to boost the natural production of adult stem cells in your bone marrow. The more adult stem cells you have circulating in your blood, the greater your body’s ability to heal and repair the injured tissues. Despite its ability to encourage cell regeneration, it doesn’t contribute to abnormal cell growth like tumors or cancers. Studies have begun to emerge indicating fucoidan might influence the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells and their incorporation in ischemic tissue.

The most significant benefits of fucoidan pertain to its ability to strengthen the immune system. Some research suggests that it may cause an increase in the number of white blood cells, which are an integral part of the body’s natural immune system. Findings from other studies suggest that fucoidan supports the immune system by activating important immune responses, such as phagocytosis – a process by which phagocytes ‘swallow’ enemy cells or microbes. Another explanation for the immune-enhancing properties of fucoidan involve its ability to stimulate natural killer cells, which play an important part in the immune response by destroying cells infected with viruses. Natural killer cells are also vital to seeking out and destroying tumor cells and are a major defense against malignancies.

How to Use Fucoidan

Fucoidan Dosage : As a dietary supplement, take 2 capsules a day with a glass of water before or with breakfast. U-Fn has been found to be especially effective for combating cancers of the reproductive system, the blood, and the lower gastrointestinal tract when 4 to 6 capsules a day are taken for 3 to 4 months.

Modified Citrus Pectin Benefits and Side Effects

Pectin is a complex carbohydrate that is abundantly present in citrus fruits. Modified Citrus Pectin  contains a patented, low molecular weight citrus pectin that can pass through the intestinal barrier so it can work systemically. Pectin in its natural form cannot be absorbed by the body and is considered a type of soluble dietary fiber, whereas modified pectin can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Modified Citrus Pectin  enters the circulatory system and reaches targeted areas of the body.

Modified Citrus Pectin Benefits

Modified citrus pectin may reduce the metastasis of certain types of cancers, including lung, prostate, and breast. The constituents of Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) that are believed to be responsible for its beneficial properties are the galactosyl fractions. A number of cancer researchers have focused on a particular galectin-3  that has been found to be directly involved in the progression and spread of several types of cancers, including prostate, breast, and colon cancer. Galectin-3 plays an important role in cancer cell growth and spread, but modified citrus pectin works to stop that growth. Galactin-3 may do more than just help cancer cells interact—it may also play a role in angiogenesis, or the growth of new blood vessels needed to feed tumors. A new blood test, which measures circulating levels of galectin-3, has been approved by the FDA and most health insurance as a useful tool in helping to determine cardiovascular disease risk and prognosis, as well as risks of cancer metastasis.

Animal studies and a couple of uncontrolled human studies have found that Modified Citrus Pectin may inhibit the spread of prostate cancer and melanoma to other organs. Melanoma Studies have reported that Modified Citrus Pectin may also decrease the metastasis of various melanoma cancerous cells. Binding to melanoma cells  and human breast carcinoma cells has been demonstrated in vitro .

Breast Cancer An in vitro study reported that Modified Citrus Pectin decreased the adhesive qualities of malignant breast carcinoma cell lines when incubated with blood vessel endothelia, thus decreasing metastasis. Results of a mouse study published in 2008 showed that MCP fed to mice that had been injected with colon cancer cells inhibited the spread of cancer to the liver. A more recent human study examined galectin expression in 27 patients with invasive breast cancer. The study revealed that increasing histologic grades of breast cancer exhibited a decrease in galectin-3 expression, possibly resulting in increased cancer cell motility and metastasis.

They reported a statistically significant increase in PSA doubling time among 13 patients with prostate cancer treated with MCP following surgery and/or androgen-deprivation therapy. MCP has the potential to moderate interactions between cells, which helps to maintain healthy tissues. Its ability to bind to galactose-binding lectins is the proposed mechanismby which it supports healthy cells. In a clinical trial of Modified Citrus Pectin for prostate cancer published in ‘Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases‘ in 2003, men with prostate cancer who took Modified Citrus Pectin had slower production of PSA, a marker of cancer growth. Pectin was also shown to induce apoptosis in adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via caspase-3 activity resulting in DNA degradation.

Modified Citrus Pectin contains polysaccharide components that researchers have shown shift T cell balance to favor Natural Killer cell activation. Modified Citrus Pectin has immunostimulatory properties in human blood samples, including the activation of functional NK cells against K562 leukemic cells in culture. Researchers demonstrated that Modified Citrus Pectin induced a dramatic ten-fold increase in NK-cell activation, and furthermore a significant 53.6% increase in the NK-cells functional ability to identify and destroy leukemia cancer cells.

Dr. Eliaz developed PectaSol® MCP as the first modified citrus pectin for human use. As the first proven natural Galectin-3 blocker, PectaSol is the only dietary supplement known to offer powerful support for healthy Galectin-3 levels. PectaSol has undergone numerous clinical tests demonstrating its ability to support healthy cell growth, and recent research published by Columbia University analyzed the positive effects of PectaSol on cellular health. The 2004 Nutrition Business Journal Product Merit Award was awarded to PectaSol, Modified Citrus Pectin.

How to Use Modified Citrus Pectin?

Modified Citrus Pectin Dosage: Dosages range from 6 to 30 grams per day in divided dosages; a typical dose is 5 grams three times daily. Modified Citrus Pectin in capsule form, 1-6 capsules (800 mg. per capsule) three times daily is recommended. PectaSol modified citrus pectin molecules are standardized to a molecular weight of 10-20,000 daltons.

Modified Citrus Pectin Side Effects

Modified citrus pectin is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. People may have laxative effects and diarrhea at high doses. Some people may be allergic to Citrus Pectin and experience itch or rash. Modified citrus pectin may also increase the urinary excretion of metals, which may have adverse interactions with some medications to treat certain diseases or conditions. Those who wish to use modified citrus pectin for the management of prostate cancer or any type of cancer must be under medical supervision.

Nattokinase Benefits and Dangers

Nattokinase, is an enzyme that is extracted from the fermented soy food called natto. Nattokinase was discovered over 20 years ago by Japanese researcher Dr. Hiroyuki Sumi at Chicago University after testing 173 different types of food in search of an alternative to warfarin to help reduce the effect of blood clots on blood circulation. Natto is produced by a fermentation process by adding Bacillus natto, a benefical bacteria, to boiled soybeans.

Nattokinase Benefits and Studies

Evidence suggests that Nattokinase may be an effective dietary approach for supporting healthy blood flow, thereby promoting circulatory and cardiovascular health. Nattokinase has the distinct ability to breaks down the adhesive substance that makes arterial plaque very sticky. In heart attacks, stroke, thrombosis, and embolism, nattokinase destroys existing blood clots in the blood vessels. Natto has been involved in numerous studies, and the results show that it has the most potent oral fibrinolytic activity of over 200 foods tested. In this trial, 73 subjects received either nattokinase containing 2,000 FU per capsule or placebo for eight weeks. The treatment group demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in heart health compared with placebo group.

Blood Thinners

Nattokinase enhances the body’s natural ability to fight blood clots and has an advantage over blood thinners because it has a prolonged effect without side effects.  Nattokinase was shown to reduce the aggregation of red blood cells in vitro in a study done at the ‘University of Los Angeles in California‘. Researchers from JCR Pharmaceuticals, Oklahoma State University and Miyazaki Medical College conducted a further study in which 12 volunteers were given 200 mg of nattokinase and then tracked their fibrinolytic activity through a series of blood plasma tests. The subjects exhibited a heightened ability to dissolve blood clots for 2 to 8 hours. A study reported in the 2010 edition of the Acta Haematologica found that nattokinase decreased blood-clot formation in animals.

Nattokinase is a fibrinolytic protease , which by nature is an enzyme whose basic function is to hydrolyze proteins. Natto acts much like plasmin, the only enzyme produced by the human body that breaks down fibrin. In vitro studies have shown that nattokinase is a more potent fibrinolytic agent than plasmin. A major difference between nattokinase and blood thinning drugs is that the drugs interfere with the production of fibrin and due to this interference, blood thinning drugs have significant side-effects. Nattokinase acts upon the fibrin itself, which is a metabolic end-product.

Blood Pressure

Various clinical studies indicate that natto is capable of lowering the body’s blood pressure through the use of inhibiting ACE or angiotensin-converting enzyme. Nattokinase dissolves existing thrombus by dissolving the fibrin that binds platelets together. Human volunteers with high blood pressure were given 30 grams of natto extract, orally for 4 consecutive days. In 4 out of 5 volunteers, the systolic blood pressure decreased on average from 173.8 to 154.8. Diastolic blood pressure decreased on average from 101.0 to 91.2. Because nattokinase is natural and safe, it has become a popular choice over other medications used to lower blood pressure.

Alzheimer’s Disease

The nattokinase in natto is believed to have the ability to degrade amyloid fibris. Studies reveal that nattokinase has the ability to dissolve the amyloid deposits that are believed to be responsible for causing Alzheimer’s disease. The build-up of plaque from beta-amyloid deposits is associated with an increase in brain cell damage and death from oxidative stress. The enzyme has the ability to dissolve amyloid fibrils, which build up as plaque in the brain and can lead to brain cell damage.

How to Use Nattokinase?

Nattokinase Dosage Information: A common standard is 2,000 FUs per day, which is usually one or two capsules. 4,000 FU daily has been used in some clinical studies as well. The recommended dosage for nattokinase is one capsule in the morning, one capsule in the afternoon and two capsules at bedtime.

Nattokinase Dangers

Natural nattokinase or nattokinase supplements are generally safe for use. Nattokinase shouldn’t be used by people with bleeding disorders, or by people who are taking coumadin, aspirin, or any other drug that influences blood clotting. Since this dietary supplement contains a large amount of K vitamin, it will reduce the effectiveness of your medications such as coumadin, which will certainly slow down the improvement of your overall health condition. Recently, a case of a cerebral hemorrhage provoked by combined use of nattokinase and aspirin in a 52-year old woman with cerebral bleeds has been reported. Those who have suffered from intracranial bleeding, or who have nueral surgery or ischemic stroke in the last six months should not take Nattokinase. Those who have a history of heart disease, ulcers, stroke, or have had a surgery in the recent past should avoid consuming nattokinase.

Indole 3 Carbinol Benefits and Side Effects

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)  is a naturally occurring phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbageand kale. Indole-3-carbinol is converted in the gut to diindolylmethane (DIM). Indole-3-Carbinol can help to maintain healthy hormonal balance for both men and women and therefore may support the health of the breast, prostate, and other reproductive organs. The results of 94 studies on the association between cruciferous vegetables consumption and cancer risk have demonstrated that a high consumption of cruciferous vegetables containing Indole-3-Carbinol is associated with a decreased risk of all types of cancer. Among all the indoles, indole 3 carbinol and its metabolites offer the most powerful antioxidant protection.

Indole 3 Carbinol Benefits

Data from clinical trials show that Indole-3-Carbinol is effective in treatment of precancerous cervical dysplasia and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. DIM, a phytonutrient found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown in animal studies to help maintain normal levels of a potentially damaging estrogen called 4-hydroxyestrone. Human reproductive cancers may be affected by estrogen levels, and Indole-3-Carbinol may prevent these by both reducing estrogen levels and blocking estrogen receptors. In a review published in the journal ‘In Vivo’ in 2008, DIM was recommended as a chemoprotective agent for both breast and prostate cancer. In addition, in a small double-blind trial, supplementation with 200 or 400 mg of indole-3-carbinol per day for 12 weeks reversed early-stage cervical cancer in 8 of 17 women.

indole-3-carbinolStudies indicate that Indole-3-Carbinol has potential value as a chemopreventive agent for breast cancer through its estrogen receptor modulating effect. There is also evidence to support the fact that I3C has a different mechanism of action than tamoxifen and that these two substances can be used synergistically. Indole-3-Carbinol initiates a series of reactions in the body that culminates in the elimination of estrogen. Researchers have observed that metabolism of estrogen occurs via one of two pathways:  The ‘harmful’ metabolic pathway, 16 alpha-hydroxylation, or the ‘beneficial’ metabolic pathway, 2-hydroxylation.

Indole-3-Carbinol helps to regulate cell growth rates, and helps to change a strong and inflammatory form of estrogen  into a safer, less aggressive form. Oral ingestion of Indole-3-Carbinol has shown to alter the metabolism of estrogen in a beneficial manner. In a  clinical study published in ‘Nutrition and Cancer’ in 2004, women with a history of breast cancer who took DIM for 30 days had positive changes in estrogen metabolism compared to a placebo group.

Indole-3-carbinol is also known to support the liver’s detoxification processes as well as normal cellular reproduction. Since the liver is the only organ in the body capable of regeneration, Indole-3-carbinol also encourages healing and repair when a part of the liver endures damage. Reports indicate that Indole-3-carbinol supports the natural elimination of toxins from the liver, increases the body’s natural metabolism of hormones and helps maintain normal hormone levels.

Indole 3 Carbinol Dosage

In general, Indole-3-Carbinol has been well tolerated by individuals at dosage ranges between 400 and 800 mg daily.  Therefore, antacids, H2 blockers, and proton-pump inhibitors may impede its effectivenes.

Indole 3 Carbinol Side Effects

In very high doses, indole-3-carbinol can cause equilibrium imbalances, tremor and nausea. However, at doses of 800 mg or higher, there has been one report of three episodes where some adverse effect from Indole-3-Carbinol was note. The conversion of I3C to its active metabolites requires stomach acid. Indole-3-carbinol might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Do not attempt to treat cervical dysplasia, or any other precancerous or cancerous condition, without physician supervision.