Grape Seed Strong Antioxidant

Grape seed extracts (GSE) are rich in antioxidants which have been associated with useful effects on health such as prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. One group of polyphenols found in grapeseed is OPCs (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins), which help combat free radicals that might increase the risk of disease. Supplements, are usually standardized to have between 40 to 80% of proanthocyanidins or an oligomeric proanthocyanidin complex (OPC) content of at least 95%.

Grape Seed Extract Antioxidant Benefits

Grape seed is a strong antioxidant and as such provides protection against cellular damage by free radicals. Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, arthritis, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tumor promotion and carcinogenesis. The high antioxidant content of grape seed extract makes it extremely beneficial for preventing cancer. Studies on mice and rats have shown grape seed extract to reduce skin and breast tumors. A study reported in Jan, 2012 demonstrated that grape seed extract prevents the growth of cancer cells by damaging the cancer cells’ DNA. A study reported in “Clinical Cancer Research” in Jan, 2009 found that grape seed extract killed laboratory leukemia cells.

Studies have shown that the antioxidant effect of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Also extensive research, demonstrated that grape seed is useful in many areas of health because of its antioxidant benefits to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. One of the most bioavailable and strong forms of antioxidant, oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes appear to be synergistic with vitamins, and in especially they protect the free radical scavenging effect of vitamin C. An study, conducted by Boston University of Medicine and USANA Health Sciences, demonstrated that the combination of grape seed extract plus vitamin C improved antioxidant status and vascular function in people with clinically proven cardiovascular disease.

Several researches have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. Grape seed promotes a healthful circulatory system by strengthening capillary walls and reducing leakage. In a double-blind study, a group of elderly participants with either spontaneous or drug-induced low capillary resistance were treated with 100-150 mg OPCs from GSE (grape seed extract) per day or placebo. 53% of patients in the treated group showed noticeable improvement in capillary resistance after 2 weeks. All patients in this group reached the maximum attainable result after 3 weeks.

Panax Ginseng Improves Memory

Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng Meyer) is a deciduous perennial plant that belongs to the Araliaceae family. The root of panax ginseng contains ginsenosides which are biologically active compounds. The chemical analysis showed that the content of ginsenosides is related to the source, part and growth years of Panax ginseng. Ginsenosides, are thought responsible for ginseng’s health benefits. Researches shows that Panax ginseng may improve performance on such things as memory, concentration,  mental arithmetic, and other measures.

Panax Ginseng and Mental Performance

This plant stimulates the formation of blood vessel and develops blood circulation in the brains, thus improving memory and cognitive abilities. Several findings have showed that panax ginseng improves mental performance, especially during times of stress. Some researches have also found a favorable effect with the combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng.

In a study of sixteen healthy males found positive changes in ability to perform mental arithmetic in those given ginseng for twelve weeks. A study of 20 healthy young participants who received a single 400-mg dose of ginseng found improvement in cognitive performance, secondary memory performance, speed of performing memory tasks, and accuracy of attentional tasks. In a study of 50 men found that eight-week therapy with a Panax ginseng improved ability in completion of a detail-oriented editing task. More comprehensive effects were seen in a study involving sixty elderly participants. Scientists found that 50 or 100 days of therapy with ginseng produced improvements in numerous measures of mental function, including memory, attention, concentration, and ability to cope. Effects were still evident at the 50-day follow-up. A study of 384 postmenopausal women who were randomized to receive placebo or ginseng for sixteen weeks demonstrated improvements in three subsets of a Psychological General Well-Being index.

In a 2006 study reported in the “Journal of Psychopharmacology“, 27 healthy young participants completed a 10 minute “cognitive demand” test. Use of ginseng demonstrated an enhanced performance. In one study of 112 healthy participants older than 40 years, the application of 400 mg per day of the standardized panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks resulted in better and faster simple reactions and abstract thinking. Both Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba exert a number of physiological effects and have been shown to modulate aspects of cognitive performance. A 2000 study in “Psychopharmacology” demonstrated that a combination of ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng may help improve memory in healthy middle-aged adults. Those with Alzheimer’s disease reversed mental decline and continued to improve mental ability while taking P. ginseng, in a study. Researchers in this study said that recent experiments suggest Panax ginseng improves memory in Alzheimer’s disease and wanted to test mental ability in those with Alzheimer’s disease.The doctors gave about 60 subjects 4500 mg of ginseng per day while observing another 40 participants who did not take ginseng for twelve weeks. At 4 weeks, those in the ginseng group had improved mental test scores by approximately 3% while the non-ginseng group had declined by approximately 2%. At twelve weeks, the ginseng group had improved by approximately 5% while the non-ginseng group still demonstrated a slight decline. Mental scores returned to original levels when patients stopped taking Panax ginseng. Doctors concluded, “ginseng is clinically effective in the cognitive performance of Alzheimer’s disease patients.”

Can Panax Ginseng Prevent Cancer

Panax ginseng apparently mitigates cancer through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic mechanisms to influence gene expression. Its preventive effect against cancer has been shown by extensive preclinical and epidemiological studies. Mechanisms include inhibition of  DNA damage, inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

Panax Ginseng Role in Cancer Therapy

The main chemical components of P. ginseng are ginsenosides, which have been shown to have a variety of useful effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. In lab study using cell cultures and animals, some ginsenosides have been shown to boost the immune system or slow the growth of cancer cells. The number of ginsenoside types contained in Panax ginseng (38 ginsenosides) is dramatically more than that of ginsenoside types contained in American ginseng (19 ginsenosides). Panax ginseng and its active compounds have been examined for their inhibiting property on putative carcinogenesis mechanisms; in most experiments inhibitory activities were found.

In mice, Panax ginseng extracts and ginsenosides both appreciably inhibited lung metastases from melanoma. Studies on human breast cancer cells indicate that ginseng, particularly its constituent ginsenoside-Rb1, acts as a phytoestrogen. In a study reported in 2001 in the Journal of Korean Medical Science states that compounds in Panax ginseng have anti-carcinogenic effects and can preserve against different types of cancer, including lung cancer. Panax ginseng was found efficacious in patients with stage III gastric cancer for improving both post-operative immunity and survival. Enhanced CD3 and CD4 activity was reported with a 5-year survival for P. ginseng patients significantly higher than control (68 % versus 33 %). Effective dose was 4.5 g/day for the first 6 months after surgery.

Panax ginseng is thought to increase immune cells and improve some of the cancer-fighting chemicals in the body, such as interleukin-2, according to a research performed by the Department of Pathology during a study on young, healthy participants at “Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University” in Bangkok. A study conducted in South Korea followed 4,587 women and men aged thirty-nine years and older from 1987 to 1991. People who consumed panax ginseng regularly were compared with similar people who did not. It was documented that in that time, those who used ginseng had a 60 % lower incidence of death from cancer, particularly stomach and lung cancer. An epidemiological study analyzed the preventive activity of Panax ginseng on 3,974 patients with various types of cancer compared to case-matched controls for 67 weeks. Patients  taking panax ginseng showed a 50% lower risk of cancer recurrence compared to patients not taking ginseng. Cancer incidence reduced by 36 and 69 % in people taking ginseng for 1 year or 5 years, respectively. A greater protective effect was seen in cancers of the  esophagus, pharynx, liver and lung .

Panax Ginseng in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng Meyer, Family Araliaceae) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Panax ginseng contains triterpene glycosides, or saponins, usually referred to as ginsenosides. In animal-based studies, ginsenosides have been shown to relax penile smooth muscle tissue and potentially affect chemical pathways involving cGMP and testosterone. Studies using panax ginseng  for erectile function and libido enhancement tend to use 3g of total panax ginseng extract daily, in three doses of 1000mg.

Panax Ginseng and Erectile Dysfunction/Fertility

The vasodilating activities of panax ginseng (Korean Red Ginseng) have been shown to develop sexual function in men with. The use of panax ginseng encourages the flow of blood to the penis and improves the response of the nervous system thereby improving the quality of erections. A study reported in November 2002 in The Journal o f Urology indicates that panax ginseng is an effective therapy for erectile dysfunction. In a study found that 1800 mg per day of panax ginseng extract for 3 months helped improve libido and the ability to maintain an erection in men with erectile dysfunction. In another study of 45 men, those who took 900 mg of Panax ginseng 3 times per day for eight weeks had less trouble getting an erection than those who took placebo.

Sixty men with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction participated in a study that assessed the efficacy of panax ginseng. Subjects were given either placebo or ginseng (1000 mg/3 times daily) for twelve weeks after which erectile function was assessed using the “International Index of Erectile Function and a Global Assessment Questionnaire”. Ginseng appeared to be effective, with 66 % of the participants in the ginseng group reported improved erections while the placebo group was not significantly different from baseline. The effect of panax ginseng on sexual dysfunction and serum lipid profile was examined in a study involving 35 elderly men with psychogenic impotence. Therapy was 2.7 g or 1.8 g of panax ginseng root or placebo for 2 months.The overall remedial effect on erectile function was 67% for panax ginseng versus 28% for placebo.

As published in Jan 2003 edition of  The Journal of Family Practice, supplement with panax ginseng offers a safe and effective alternative for achieving and maintaining erection, even in severe cases of erectile dysfunction. A 2009 study demonstrated that 1000 mg of panax ginseng twice daily improved erectile function and  overall sexual satisfaction among men with erectile dysfunction. In a study of 90 men with erectile dysfunction, 60% of the subjects reported development in their symptoms compared with 30 % of those using the placebo. The findings was published in the “International Journal of Impotence Research“.

Experiments have shown results, indicating that Korean ginseng promotes the growth of male reproductive organs, increases sperm and testoterone levels, and enhances sexual activity in lab animals. In 1996, the Journal Panminerva Medica reported a study in which infertile men demonstrated improved sperm count and motility after being treated with 4 grams of red ginseng for 3 months. According to a 1999 “World Health Organization” examination, ginseng saponins are thought to reduce serum prolactin, therefore increasing libido in male impotence.

Role Panax Ginseng in Diabetes

Panax ginseng has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years to enhance both longevity and the quality of life. Panax ginseng root contains active chemicals called ginsenosides, which are thought to be responsible for the herb’s pharmacological effects. Some researches have shown that ginseng increases insulin production and reduces cell death in pancreatic beta cells. Also, ginseng can reduce blood-glucose in type II diabetes patients.

Panax Ginseng and Type 2 Diabetes

Panax ginseng is commonly used in Chinese Medicine to treat diabetes. It has been shown in test tube and animal-based studies to increase the release of insulin from the pancreas and to increase the number of insulin receptors. Between 1921 and 1932, Japanese researchers reported that ginseng root decreased baseline blood glucose and reduced hyperglycemia caused by adrenaline or high concentration glucose administration. Results of in vitro studies, animal experiments and clinical studies  strongly support the claim that ginseng root possesses antidiabetic effects.30 ginsenosides Ginsenoside Rh2, one of the ginsenosides contained in the Panax ginseng Ginsenoside Rh2 has an property to improve insulin action on glucose.

In animal models of diet-induced Type II Diabetes, Panax ginseng appears to be efficacious at increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle tissue when fed at 200mg/kg bodyweight. There is some findings that taking panax ginseng, 200 mg daily, can lessen fasting blood glucose levels and hemoglobin HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a study in which ginseng root (100 or 200 mg daily for 8 weeks) were orally administered to 36 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients demonstrated a reduction in fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. Ginseng can lessen insulin requirements and prolong the effect of  injected insulin. Patients with type 2 diabetes mostly find that after 2 weeks of taking ginseng tea, their blood-sugar levels go down by between 40 and 50 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl). In the “Journal of Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases” (January 2008), it was reported that panax ginseng improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes.