Guggul (gum guggul) is the common name for the mukul myrrh tree. Upon injury, the tree exudes a yellowish gum resin known as gum guggul, guggulu or gugulipid. This resin has been used for a long time in India as a traditional remedy in Ayurveda. The freshly collected gum resin is brown, pale yellow or dull green in color; aged resin is dark brown in color. Gugulipid, which is extracted from guggul, contains guggulsterones, which may have medical effects for humans.
According to experiments C. mukul are as influential at reducing inflammation and relieving pain as ibuprofen, and as efficacious at fighting infection as tetracycline in treating acne. Another researches has shown that myrrhanol-A, a triterpene isolated from guggul gum, is a strong anti-inflammatory, and significantly decreases pain and stiffness in individuals with osteoarthritis. The guggulsterones may be able to decrease cholesterol, while myrrhanol A has anti-inflammatory properties. Guggulipid has been found to inhibit platelet aggregation and improve fibrinolysis.
Triglycerides and Cholesterol
Commiphora mukul can reduce triglycerides by 22-30% and can reduce blood cholesterol by 14-27%. Also, experimental studies indicate that guggul extract could develop cardiac function and lower the risk of heart attack. Gugulipid was granted approval in India for sales as a lipid-lowering medicine in 1986.
Guggulsterones are responsible for guggul lipid-reducing activity. In lab experiments, a chemical in guggul named guggulsterone affects the production of cholesterol by the liver. At the “Central Drug Research Institute” in India lab animals were fed a high cholesterol diet to give them hypercholesterolemia. By simply adding guggul resin to their diets they reduced the blood fats while keeping them on the high cholesterol feed. 12-week a clinical study showed that 1500 mg of guggulipid had average decrease in serum cholesterol of approximately 22%, while triglycerides were reduced nearly 25% in participants who took it regularly. Another study involving 233 people with elevated triglycerides or cholesterol levels or both demonstrated that guggulipid worked better than the cholesterol-lowering medicine Clofibrate.
Various researches have found that guggul decreases platelet stickiness so over clotting does not occur in the blood, which causes strokes and heart attacks. This is also auxiliary in fibrinolytic activity. In a clinical study, guggul in combination with Inula racemosa was studied in 200 participant with ischemic heart disease and found to improve electrocardiogram readings and reduce episodes of dyspnea and chest pain.
Guggul acts as anti-inflammatory factor that has the property to decrease joint pain, swelling, morning stiffness and other related symptoms. Small-scale clinical study, supplementation with 500 mg of a concentrated extract (3.5% guggulsterones) of guggul 3 times per day for 1 month resulted in a noteworthy development in symptoms in participants with osteoarthritis of the knee. C. mukul has been reported to be a strong anti-inflammatory agent and has been compared to pharmaceutical agents, such as ibuprofen. The findings of an preliminary study reported in the July 1977 edition of the journal Arzneimittelforschung showed that guggul may even be as effectual as the anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and phenylbutazone. Potential activity on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein have lately been observed in a clinical study.
Antibiotic tetracycline is a general therapy for moderate to severe acne. A small controlled study compared oral guggul (dose equivalent to 25 mg guggulsterones or 500 mg of guggul 2 times per day) against tetracycline for the therapy of acne, reported equal results. According to the experiment findings, tetracycline reduced acne lesions for 65 % percent and gugulipid 68 %. Was made that participants with an oily complexion react better to gugulipid. (Journal of Dermatology October 1994)
The typical daily dose is between 75 and 150 mg. The guggul supplementation should be standardized to contain 2.5% guggulsterones. For acne, tablet containing 25 mg of guggulsterone has been taken twice daily for 6 weeks. For triglyceride and cholesterol 25 mg of guggulsterone 3 to 4 times per day has been used. In a research evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of guggul, 500 mg of gum guggul was used three times daily.
Guggul can generate adverse effects like , nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, headache, abdominal pain and skin irritation in some people. Commiphora Mukul is considered an emmenagogue and a uterine stimulant, and should not be used during gravidity.